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The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, dlm - dorsal longitudinal muscle, vlm - ventral longitudinal muscle.
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f1: Dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, dlm - dorsal longitudinal muscle, vlm - ventral longitudinal muscle.

Mentions: The dorsal longitudinal muscle IIdlm1 (Fig. 1) is small and is missing in nymphal Zygoptera. However, it is present but very small, consisting of just a few fibres, in adult Zygoptera18. This might indicate that IIdlm1 develops only in the latest instars and was not present in the instars investigated. It is present in nymphs of Anisoptera20.


The thorax morphology of Epiophlebia (Insecta: Odonata) nymphs--including remarks on ontogenesis and evolution.

Büsse S, Helmker B, Hörnschemeyer T - Sci Rep (2015)

Dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, dlm - dorsal longitudinal muscle, vlm - ventral longitudinal muscle.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526886&req=5

f1: Dorsal longitudinal and ventral longitudinal musculature of Epiophlebia laidlawi.3D - reconstruction from SRμCT data showing the left half of the thorax. Abd - Abdomen, dlm - dorsal longitudinal muscle, vlm - ventral longitudinal muscle.
Mentions: The dorsal longitudinal muscle IIdlm1 (Fig. 1) is small and is missing in nymphal Zygoptera. However, it is present but very small, consisting of just a few fibres, in adult Zygoptera18. This might indicate that IIdlm1 develops only in the latest instars and was not present in the instars investigated. It is present in nymphs of Anisoptera20.

Bottom Line: In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia.This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate.It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: University Museum of Zoology, Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Downing Street, CB2 3EJ Cambridge, UK.

ABSTRACT
The species of Epiophlebia are unique among the recent Odonata in showing a mixture of morphological characters of dragonflies (Anisoptera) and damselflies (Zygoptera). The status of the four described extant species of Epiophlebia is disputable from a genetic as well as from a morphological point of view. Here we present an analysis of the thoracic musculature of different nymphal instars of Epiophlebia laidlawi and Epiophlebia superstes to elucidate their morphology and ontogenetic development. In total, 75 muscles have been identified in the thorax of Epiophlebia. This represents the highest number of thoracic muscles ever found in any odonate. It includes six muscles that are reported for the first time for Odonata, and three of these are even new for Pterygota. In total, our results indicate that Epiophlebia has the most ancestral thoracic morphology among Odonata.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus