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Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory.

Okada K, Nishizawa K, Kobayashi T, Sakata S, Kobayashi K - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Eliminating MS/vDB neurons impairs spatial but not object recognition memory in the reference and working memory tasks, whereas NBM elimination undermines only object recognition memory in the working memory task.These impairments are restored by treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anti-dementia drugs for AD.Our results highlight that MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons are not only implicated in recognition memory but also have essential roles in different types of recognition memory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Behavioural Sciences, Graduate School of Integrated Arts &Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remains unclear how they contribute to it. We use a genetic cell targeting technique to selectively eliminate cholinergic cell groups and then test spatial and object recognition memory through different behavioural tasks. Eliminating MS/vDB neurons impairs spatial but not object recognition memory in the reference and working memory tasks, whereas NBM elimination undermines only object recognition memory in the working memory task. These impairments are restored by treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anti-dementia drugs for AD. Our results highlight that MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons are not only implicated in recognition memory but also have essential roles in different types of recognition memory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Elimination of the MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons impaired spatial and object working memory, respectively.(a) Strategy for the one-trial object exploration task. A large square represents the square open field. Mice individually explored the open field during the object exploration and displaced/novel object exploration sessions with an intersession interval of 3 or 30 min. Two identical objects (A) were placed for the exploration session, and one object was displaced or exchanged by a novel object (B). (b,c) Mean number of contacts during the object exploration session. Tg and non-Tg mice were injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (b) or NBM (c) and used for the task. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. (d,e) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and displaced objects in the spatial recognition test (displaced object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (d) or NBM (e) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object (Bonferroni method). NS, not significant. (f,g) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and novel objects in the object recognition test (novel object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (f) or NBM (g) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object. NS, not significant.
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f3: Elimination of the MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons impaired spatial and object working memory, respectively.(a) Strategy for the one-trial object exploration task. A large square represents the square open field. Mice individually explored the open field during the object exploration and displaced/novel object exploration sessions with an intersession interval of 3 or 30 min. Two identical objects (A) were placed for the exploration session, and one object was displaced or exchanged by a novel object (B). (b,c) Mean number of contacts during the object exploration session. Tg and non-Tg mice were injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (b) or NBM (c) and used for the task. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. (d,e) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and displaced objects in the spatial recognition test (displaced object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (d) or NBM (e) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object (Bonferroni method). NS, not significant. (f,g) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and novel objects in the object recognition test (novel object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (f) or NBM (g) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object. NS, not significant.

Mentions: To validate the influence of basal forebrain cholinergic elimination on spatial and object recognition memory in the working memory task, we used a one-trial object exploration task3334, which consisted of two sessions: (1) object exploration and (2) displaced/novel object exploration (Fig. 3a). Mice first explored the open field in which two identical objects were placed. At different intersession delay periods (3 and 30 min), the mice again explored the field, in which one object had been displaced or replaced by a novel object. The number of contacts with objects was counted during each session, and this number was used to validate spatial and object working memory from the displaced and novel object exploration sessions, respectively.


Distinct roles of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in spatial and object recognition memory.

Okada K, Nishizawa K, Kobayashi T, Sakata S, Kobayashi K - Sci Rep (2015)

Elimination of the MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons impaired spatial and object working memory, respectively.(a) Strategy for the one-trial object exploration task. A large square represents the square open field. Mice individually explored the open field during the object exploration and displaced/novel object exploration sessions with an intersession interval of 3 or 30 min. Two identical objects (A) were placed for the exploration session, and one object was displaced or exchanged by a novel object (B). (b,c) Mean number of contacts during the object exploration session. Tg and non-Tg mice were injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (b) or NBM (c) and used for the task. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. (d,e) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and displaced objects in the spatial recognition test (displaced object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (d) or NBM (e) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object (Bonferroni method). NS, not significant. (f,g) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and novel objects in the object recognition test (novel object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (f) or NBM (g) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object. NS, not significant.
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f3: Elimination of the MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons impaired spatial and object working memory, respectively.(a) Strategy for the one-trial object exploration task. A large square represents the square open field. Mice individually explored the open field during the object exploration and displaced/novel object exploration sessions with an intersession interval of 3 or 30 min. Two identical objects (A) were placed for the exploration session, and one object was displaced or exchanged by a novel object (B). (b,c) Mean number of contacts during the object exploration session. Tg and non-Tg mice were injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (b) or NBM (c) and used for the task. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. (d,e) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and displaced objects in the spatial recognition test (displaced object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (d) or NBM (e) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object (Bonferroni method). NS, not significant. (f,g) Mean number of contacts with the non-displaced and novel objects in the object recognition test (novel object exploration session). Mice injected with IT solution or PBS into the MS/vDB (f) or NBM (g) were used. Data are presented as mean ± s.e.m. n = 8 for each group. *P < 0.05 vs non-displaced object. NS, not significant.
Mentions: To validate the influence of basal forebrain cholinergic elimination on spatial and object recognition memory in the working memory task, we used a one-trial object exploration task3334, which consisted of two sessions: (1) object exploration and (2) displaced/novel object exploration (Fig. 3a). Mice first explored the open field in which two identical objects were placed. At different intersession delay periods (3 and 30 min), the mice again explored the field, in which one object had been displaced or replaced by a novel object. The number of contacts with objects was counted during each session, and this number was used to validate spatial and object working memory from the displaced and novel object exploration sessions, respectively.

Bottom Line: Eliminating MS/vDB neurons impairs spatial but not object recognition memory in the reference and working memory tasks, whereas NBM elimination undermines only object recognition memory in the working memory task.These impairments are restored by treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anti-dementia drugs for AD.Our results highlight that MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons are not only implicated in recognition memory but also have essential roles in different types of recognition memory.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Behavioural Sciences, Graduate School of Integrated Arts &Sciences, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8521, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Recognition memory requires processing of various types of information such as objects and locations. Impairment in recognition memory is a prominent feature of amnesia and a symptom of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Basal forebrain cholinergic neurons contain two major groups, one localized in the medial septum (MS)/vertical diagonal band of Broca (vDB), and the other in the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM). The roles of these cell groups in recognition memory have been debated, and it remains unclear how they contribute to it. We use a genetic cell targeting technique to selectively eliminate cholinergic cell groups and then test spatial and object recognition memory through different behavioural tasks. Eliminating MS/vDB neurons impairs spatial but not object recognition memory in the reference and working memory tasks, whereas NBM elimination undermines only object recognition memory in the working memory task. These impairments are restored by treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, anti-dementia drugs for AD. Our results highlight that MS/vDB and NBM cholinergic neurons are not only implicated in recognition memory but also have essential roles in different types of recognition memory.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus