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Vascular permeability--the essentials.

Claesson-Welsh L - Ups. J. Med. Sci. (2015)

Bottom Line: This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation.Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability.The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory , Uppsala , Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The vasculature, composed of vessels of different morphology and function, distributes blood to all tissues and maintains physiological tissue homeostasis. In pathologies, the vasculature is often affected by, and engaged in, the disease process. This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation. Chronic vessel permeability may also facilitate metastatic spread of cancer. Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability. The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Different mechanisms for extravasation of solute, cells, and molecules. Specialized capillaries in endocrine organs have pores, fenestrae, in the plasma membrane. Fenestrae allow rapid exchange of solute and molecules such as hormones. Transcellular gaps provide a route for inflammatory cells, which, however, also may exit through paracellular junctions. Disintegration of junctions allows extravasation of molecules.
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Figure 1: Different mechanisms for extravasation of solute, cells, and molecules. Specialized capillaries in endocrine organs have pores, fenestrae, in the plasma membrane. Fenestrae allow rapid exchange of solute and molecules such as hormones. Transcellular gaps provide a route for inflammatory cells, which, however, also may exit through paracellular junctions. Disintegration of junctions allows extravasation of molecules.

Mentions: The mechanism underlying vascular leak may be different in different organs and depend on the specialized vasculature. However, two main models have been proposed. One depends on formation of transendothelial channels from vesicles or vacuoles, the vesiculo-vacuolar organelle (VVO), and the other involves endothelial junctions that can be transiently dissolved and allow extravasation. The actin cytoskeleton may have a critical role in gap formation. Moreover, the specialized junction in the brain vasculature, instrumental in the BBB, and the features of fenestrated endothelium will be described. The involvement of these different mechanisms may depend on the vessel type, the organ, the kinetics of the transport, and the nature of what is transported across the vascular wall—solute, molecules, or cells (Figure 1).


Vascular permeability--the essentials.

Claesson-Welsh L - Ups. J. Med. Sci. (2015)

Different mechanisms for extravasation of solute, cells, and molecules. Specialized capillaries in endocrine organs have pores, fenestrae, in the plasma membrane. Fenestrae allow rapid exchange of solute and molecules such as hormones. Transcellular gaps provide a route for inflammatory cells, which, however, also may exit through paracellular junctions. Disintegration of junctions allows extravasation of molecules.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526869&req=5

Figure 1: Different mechanisms for extravasation of solute, cells, and molecules. Specialized capillaries in endocrine organs have pores, fenestrae, in the plasma membrane. Fenestrae allow rapid exchange of solute and molecules such as hormones. Transcellular gaps provide a route for inflammatory cells, which, however, also may exit through paracellular junctions. Disintegration of junctions allows extravasation of molecules.
Mentions: The mechanism underlying vascular leak may be different in different organs and depend on the specialized vasculature. However, two main models have been proposed. One depends on formation of transendothelial channels from vesicles or vacuoles, the vesiculo-vacuolar organelle (VVO), and the other involves endothelial junctions that can be transiently dissolved and allow extravasation. The actin cytoskeleton may have a critical role in gap formation. Moreover, the specialized junction in the brain vasculature, instrumental in the BBB, and the features of fenestrated endothelium will be described. The involvement of these different mechanisms may depend on the vessel type, the organ, the kinetics of the transport, and the nature of what is transported across the vascular wall—solute, molecules, or cells (Figure 1).

Bottom Line: This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation.Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability.The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Uppsala University, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Rudbeck Laboratory , Uppsala , Sweden.

ABSTRACT
The vasculature, composed of vessels of different morphology and function, distributes blood to all tissues and maintains physiological tissue homeostasis. In pathologies, the vasculature is often affected by, and engaged in, the disease process. This may result in excessive formation of new, unstable, and hyperpermeable vessels with poor blood flow, which further promotes hypoxia and disease propagation. Chronic vessel permeability may also facilitate metastatic spread of cancer. Thus, there is a strong incentive to learn more about an important aspect of vessel biology in health and disease: the regulation of vessel permeability. The current review aims to summarize current insights into different mechanisms of vascular permeability, its regulatory factors, and the consequences for disease.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus