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Diacetin, a reliable cue and private communication channel in a specialized pollination system.

Schäffler I, Steiner KE, Haid M, van Berkel SS, Gerlach G, Johnson SD, Wessjohann L, Dötterl S - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: The structural and obvious biosynthetic similarity between diacetin and associated floral oils make it a reliable cue for oil-collecting bees.It is easily perceived by oil bees, but can't be detected by other potential pollinators.Therefore, diacetin represents the first demonstrated private communication channel in a pollination system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria [2] Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth.

ABSTRACT
The interaction between floral oil secreting plants and oil-collecting bees is one of the most specialized of all pollination mutualisms. Yet, the specific stimuli used by the bees to locate their host flowers have remained elusive. This study identifies diacetin, a volatile acetylated glycerol, as a floral signal compound shared by unrelated oil plants from around the globe. Electrophysiological measurements of antennae and behavioural assays identified diacetin as the key volatile used by oil-collecting bees to locate their host flowers. Furthermore, electrophysiological measurements indicate that only oil-collecting bees are capable of detecting diacetin. The structural and obvious biosynthetic similarity between diacetin and associated floral oils make it a reliable cue for oil-collecting bees. It is easily perceived by oil bees, but can't be detected by other potential pollinators. Therefore, diacetin represents the first demonstrated private communication channel in a pollination system.

No MeSH data available.


Diacetin is likely a derivative of the fatty floral oil biosynthesis.Schematic overview of proposed biosynthesis of diacetin and abundant floral oil components found in Lysimachia punctata.
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f4: Diacetin is likely a derivative of the fatty floral oil biosynthesis.Schematic overview of proposed biosynthesis of diacetin and abundant floral oil components found in Lysimachia punctata.

Mentions: The basic structure of floral oils (i.e. acylglycerols) is similar for the oil species found around the world and resembles that of the volatile compound diacetin as well as some lipids in plant tissues31. As exemplified by L. punctata, major compounds in the floral oil are 1-[(3R)-acetoxystearoyl]-2-acetylglycerol and 1-[(3R)-acetoxystearoyl]-3-acetylglycerol and both of these compounds are composed of a glycerol esterified with one acetic acid and with one substituted long-chain fatty acid (Fig. 4). Structural similarities of these two compounds with 1,2- and 1,3-diacetin are evident. It can be assumed that metabolic pathways or enzymes utilized, such as those involved in ester formation of glycerol with fatty acids44 (specifically 3-hydroxy/3-acetoxy fatty acids) or acetic acid, are to some extent identical for this group of lipids and for diacetin production (Fig. 4).


Diacetin, a reliable cue and private communication channel in a specialized pollination system.

Schäffler I, Steiner KE, Haid M, van Berkel SS, Gerlach G, Johnson SD, Wessjohann L, Dötterl S - Sci Rep (2015)

Diacetin is likely a derivative of the fatty floral oil biosynthesis.Schematic overview of proposed biosynthesis of diacetin and abundant floral oil components found in Lysimachia punctata.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526864&req=5

f4: Diacetin is likely a derivative of the fatty floral oil biosynthesis.Schematic overview of proposed biosynthesis of diacetin and abundant floral oil components found in Lysimachia punctata.
Mentions: The basic structure of floral oils (i.e. acylglycerols) is similar for the oil species found around the world and resembles that of the volatile compound diacetin as well as some lipids in plant tissues31. As exemplified by L. punctata, major compounds in the floral oil are 1-[(3R)-acetoxystearoyl]-2-acetylglycerol and 1-[(3R)-acetoxystearoyl]-3-acetylglycerol and both of these compounds are composed of a glycerol esterified with one acetic acid and with one substituted long-chain fatty acid (Fig. 4). Structural similarities of these two compounds with 1,2- and 1,3-diacetin are evident. It can be assumed that metabolic pathways or enzymes utilized, such as those involved in ester formation of glycerol with fatty acids44 (specifically 3-hydroxy/3-acetoxy fatty acids) or acetic acid, are to some extent identical for this group of lipids and for diacetin production (Fig. 4).

Bottom Line: The structural and obvious biosynthetic similarity between diacetin and associated floral oils make it a reliable cue for oil-collecting bees.It is easily perceived by oil bees, but can't be detected by other potential pollinators.Therefore, diacetin represents the first demonstrated private communication channel in a pollination system.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] Department of Ecology and Evolution, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstr. 34, 5020 Salzburg, Austria [2] Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth.

ABSTRACT
The interaction between floral oil secreting plants and oil-collecting bees is one of the most specialized of all pollination mutualisms. Yet, the specific stimuli used by the bees to locate their host flowers have remained elusive. This study identifies diacetin, a volatile acetylated glycerol, as a floral signal compound shared by unrelated oil plants from around the globe. Electrophysiological measurements of antennae and behavioural assays identified diacetin as the key volatile used by oil-collecting bees to locate their host flowers. Furthermore, electrophysiological measurements indicate that only oil-collecting bees are capable of detecting diacetin. The structural and obvious biosynthetic similarity between diacetin and associated floral oils make it a reliable cue for oil-collecting bees. It is easily perceived by oil bees, but can't be detected by other potential pollinators. Therefore, diacetin represents the first demonstrated private communication channel in a pollination system.

No MeSH data available.