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Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

Panzer S, Mc Coy MR, Hitzl W, Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Zink AR, Augat P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories.The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%.Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany; Institute of Biomechanics, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany, and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

No MeSH data available.


Subcategory Genitourinary System.Axial (a-d, f, g) and sagittal (e) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P21) Both kidneys are shown as clearly shrunken hyperdense organs with discernible parenchyma and renal pelvis. Note peripheral nerves lumbar bilaterally inside the neuroforamina. b (V3) A different kind of preservation of both kidneys in the form of hypodense parenchyma and hyperdense margin. Note tendons and/or musculature right forearm, intestine. c (V3) The distended urinary bladder (asterisk) is visible with a dried fluid level dorsally. Note capsule and/or labrum of both hips, rectum and/or anus with dried fluid level. d (P21) The prostate is detectable as a shrunken structure surrounding the urethra (arrow). Note rectum and/or anus. e (V9) Visible uterus with cavum (arrow) and hyperdense margin. Note intervertebral discs lumbar spine, intestine. f (P11) Penis and scrotum are shown. Note tendons and/or musculature hand, tendons and/or musculature pelvis. g (V17) Labia are clearly visible in this child mummy. Note tendons and/or musculature thighs.
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pone.0133364.g006: Subcategory Genitourinary System.Axial (a-d, f, g) and sagittal (e) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P21) Both kidneys are shown as clearly shrunken hyperdense organs with discernible parenchyma and renal pelvis. Note peripheral nerves lumbar bilaterally inside the neuroforamina. b (V3) A different kind of preservation of both kidneys in the form of hypodense parenchyma and hyperdense margin. Note tendons and/or musculature right forearm, intestine. c (V3) The distended urinary bladder (asterisk) is visible with a dried fluid level dorsally. Note capsule and/or labrum of both hips, rectum and/or anus with dried fluid level. d (P21) The prostate is detectable as a shrunken structure surrounding the urethra (arrow). Note rectum and/or anus. e (V9) Visible uterus with cavum (arrow) and hyperdense margin. Note intervertebral discs lumbar spine, intestine. f (P11) Penis and scrotum are shown. Note tendons and/or musculature hand, tendons and/or musculature pelvis. g (V17) Labia are clearly visible in this child mummy. Note tendons and/or musculature thighs.

Mentions: The developed checklist and the scoring system are shown in Table 1. The checklist was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems” each including various subcategories, and contains a total of 97 checkpoints (written below in italics). Figures were divided into the subcategories “Head” (Fig 1), “Musculoskeletal System” (Fig 2), “Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves” (Fig 3), “Cardiorespiratory System” (Fig 4), “Gastrointestinal System” (Fig 5), “Genitourinary System” (Fig 6), and “Vasculature-Arteries” (Fig 7). Except for the anterior cruciate ligament that is comparable to the posterior cruciate ligament, and the tendons and/or musculature feet that are comparable to tendons and/or musculature hands, all checkpoints are shown at least once (Figs 1–7).


Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

Panzer S, Mc Coy MR, Hitzl W, Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Zink AR, Augat P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Subcategory Genitourinary System.Axial (a-d, f, g) and sagittal (e) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P21) Both kidneys are shown as clearly shrunken hyperdense organs with discernible parenchyma and renal pelvis. Note peripheral nerves lumbar bilaterally inside the neuroforamina. b (V3) A different kind of preservation of both kidneys in the form of hypodense parenchyma and hyperdense margin. Note tendons and/or musculature right forearm, intestine. c (V3) The distended urinary bladder (asterisk) is visible with a dried fluid level dorsally. Note capsule and/or labrum of both hips, rectum and/or anus with dried fluid level. d (P21) The prostate is detectable as a shrunken structure surrounding the urethra (arrow). Note rectum and/or anus. e (V9) Visible uterus with cavum (arrow) and hyperdense margin. Note intervertebral discs lumbar spine, intestine. f (P11) Penis and scrotum are shown. Note tendons and/or musculature hand, tendons and/or musculature pelvis. g (V17) Labia are clearly visible in this child mummy. Note tendons and/or musculature thighs.
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pone.0133364.g006: Subcategory Genitourinary System.Axial (a-d, f, g) and sagittal (e) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P21) Both kidneys are shown as clearly shrunken hyperdense organs with discernible parenchyma and renal pelvis. Note peripheral nerves lumbar bilaterally inside the neuroforamina. b (V3) A different kind of preservation of both kidneys in the form of hypodense parenchyma and hyperdense margin. Note tendons and/or musculature right forearm, intestine. c (V3) The distended urinary bladder (asterisk) is visible with a dried fluid level dorsally. Note capsule and/or labrum of both hips, rectum and/or anus with dried fluid level. d (P21) The prostate is detectable as a shrunken structure surrounding the urethra (arrow). Note rectum and/or anus. e (V9) Visible uterus with cavum (arrow) and hyperdense margin. Note intervertebral discs lumbar spine, intestine. f (P11) Penis and scrotum are shown. Note tendons and/or musculature hand, tendons and/or musculature pelvis. g (V17) Labia are clearly visible in this child mummy. Note tendons and/or musculature thighs.
Mentions: The developed checklist and the scoring system are shown in Table 1. The checklist was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems” each including various subcategories, and contains a total of 97 checkpoints (written below in italics). Figures were divided into the subcategories “Head” (Fig 1), “Musculoskeletal System” (Fig 2), “Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves” (Fig 3), “Cardiorespiratory System” (Fig 4), “Gastrointestinal System” (Fig 5), “Genitourinary System” (Fig 6), and “Vasculature-Arteries” (Fig 7). Except for the anterior cruciate ligament that is comparable to the posterior cruciate ligament, and the tendons and/or musculature feet that are comparable to tendons and/or musculature hands, all checkpoints are shown at least once (Figs 1–7).

Bottom Line: Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories.The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%.Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany; Institute of Biomechanics, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany, and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

No MeSH data available.