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Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

Panzer S, Mc Coy MR, Hitzl W, Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Zink AR, Augat P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories.The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%.Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany; Institute of Biomechanics, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany, and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Subcategory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves.Axial (a, b, d-g) and sagittal (c) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P3) Preservation of the brain as a mass forming a kind of dried fluid-level at the deepest point of the skull with additional fragments of parenchyma. b, c (P20) Improved preservation status with identifiable cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Note soft tissues of the nose, the falx and the tentorium, and the tongue in (c). d (P1) The trigeminal nerve (arrows) can be found bilaterally in its anatomical course. Note bulb and/or lens, tentorium, falx, tendons and/or musculature skull-base, parts of the cerebellum, and brainstem. e (P1) The facial nerve is detectable on the right side (arrow) and suggested on the left side. Note bilateral auricles, bulb and/or lens, ossicles, tendons and/or musculature skull-base and cerebellum. f (P3) The cervical spinal cord and dura are shown as one single structure. The peripheral cervical nerves are visible inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature neck, and the thyroid cartilage as part of the hypophyarynx and/or larynx. g (P1) The thoracic spinal cord and dura are discernible and the peripheral thoracic nerves are detectable inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature thoracic and lumbar spine.
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pone.0133364.g003: Subcategory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves.Axial (a, b, d-g) and sagittal (c) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P3) Preservation of the brain as a mass forming a kind of dried fluid-level at the deepest point of the skull with additional fragments of parenchyma. b, c (P20) Improved preservation status with identifiable cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Note soft tissues of the nose, the falx and the tentorium, and the tongue in (c). d (P1) The trigeminal nerve (arrows) can be found bilaterally in its anatomical course. Note bulb and/or lens, tentorium, falx, tendons and/or musculature skull-base, parts of the cerebellum, and brainstem. e (P1) The facial nerve is detectable on the right side (arrow) and suggested on the left side. Note bilateral auricles, bulb and/or lens, ossicles, tendons and/or musculature skull-base and cerebellum. f (P3) The cervical spinal cord and dura are shown as one single structure. The peripheral cervical nerves are visible inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature neck, and the thyroid cartilage as part of the hypophyarynx and/or larynx. g (P1) The thoracic spinal cord and dura are discernible and the peripheral thoracic nerves are detectable inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature thoracic and lumbar spine.

Mentions: The developed checklist and the scoring system are shown in Table 1. The checklist was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems” each including various subcategories, and contains a total of 97 checkpoints (written below in italics). Figures were divided into the subcategories “Head” (Fig 1), “Musculoskeletal System” (Fig 2), “Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves” (Fig 3), “Cardiorespiratory System” (Fig 4), “Gastrointestinal System” (Fig 5), “Genitourinary System” (Fig 6), and “Vasculature-Arteries” (Fig 7). Except for the anterior cruciate ligament that is comparable to the posterior cruciate ligament, and the tendons and/or musculature feet that are comparable to tendons and/or musculature hands, all checkpoints are shown at least once (Figs 1–7).


Checklist and Scoring System for the Assessment of Soft Tissue Preservation in CT Examinations of Human Mummies.

Panzer S, Mc Coy MR, Hitzl W, Piombino-Mascali D, Jankauskas R, Zink AR, Augat P - PLoS ONE (2015)

Subcategory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves.Axial (a, b, d-g) and sagittal (c) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P3) Preservation of the brain as a mass forming a kind of dried fluid-level at the deepest point of the skull with additional fragments of parenchyma. b, c (P20) Improved preservation status with identifiable cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Note soft tissues of the nose, the falx and the tentorium, and the tongue in (c). d (P1) The trigeminal nerve (arrows) can be found bilaterally in its anatomical course. Note bulb and/or lens, tentorium, falx, tendons and/or musculature skull-base, parts of the cerebellum, and brainstem. e (P1) The facial nerve is detectable on the right side (arrow) and suggested on the left side. Note bilateral auricles, bulb and/or lens, ossicles, tendons and/or musculature skull-base and cerebellum. f (P3) The cervical spinal cord and dura are shown as one single structure. The peripheral cervical nerves are visible inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature neck, and the thyroid cartilage as part of the hypophyarynx and/or larynx. g (P1) The thoracic spinal cord and dura are discernible and the peripheral thoracic nerves are detectable inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature thoracic and lumbar spine.
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Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526695&req=5

pone.0133364.g003: Subcategory Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves.Axial (a, b, d-g) and sagittal (c) multiplanar reconstructions. a (P3) Preservation of the brain as a mass forming a kind of dried fluid-level at the deepest point of the skull with additional fragments of parenchyma. b, c (P20) Improved preservation status with identifiable cerebrum, cerebellum and brainstem. Note soft tissues of the nose, the falx and the tentorium, and the tongue in (c). d (P1) The trigeminal nerve (arrows) can be found bilaterally in its anatomical course. Note bulb and/or lens, tentorium, falx, tendons and/or musculature skull-base, parts of the cerebellum, and brainstem. e (P1) The facial nerve is detectable on the right side (arrow) and suggested on the left side. Note bilateral auricles, bulb and/or lens, ossicles, tendons and/or musculature skull-base and cerebellum. f (P3) The cervical spinal cord and dura are shown as one single structure. The peripheral cervical nerves are visible inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature neck, and the thyroid cartilage as part of the hypophyarynx and/or larynx. g (P1) The thoracic spinal cord and dura are discernible and the peripheral thoracic nerves are detectable inside the neuroforamina. Note tendons and/or musculature thoracic and lumbar spine.
Mentions: The developed checklist and the scoring system are shown in Table 1. The checklist was divided into two main categories, “A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System” and “B. Organs and Organ Systems” each including various subcategories, and contains a total of 97 checkpoints (written below in italics). Figures were divided into the subcategories “Head” (Fig 1), “Musculoskeletal System” (Fig 2), “Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nerves” (Fig 3), “Cardiorespiratory System” (Fig 4), “Gastrointestinal System” (Fig 5), “Genitourinary System” (Fig 6), and “Vasculature-Arteries” (Fig 7). Except for the anterior cruciate ligament that is comparable to the posterior cruciate ligament, and the tendons and/or musculature feet that are comparable to tendons and/or musculature hands, all checkpoints are shown at least once (Figs 1–7).

Bottom Line: Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories.The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%.Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Radiology, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany; Institute of Biomechanics, Trauma Center Murnau, Murnau, Germany, and Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg, Austria.

ABSTRACT
The purpose of this study was to develop a checklist for standardized assessment of soft tissue preservation in human mummies based on whole-body computed tomography examinations, and to add a scoring system to facilitate quantitative comparison of mummies. Computed tomography examinations of 23 mummies from the Capuchin Catacombs of Palermo, Sicily (17 adults, 6 children; 17 anthropogenically and 6 naturally mummified) and 7 mummies from the crypt of the Dominican Church of the Holy Spirit of Vilnius, Lithuania (5 adults, 2 children; all naturally mummified) were used to develop the checklist following previously published guidelines. The scoring system was developed by assigning equal scores for checkpoints with equivalent quality. The checklist was evaluated by intra- and inter-observer reliability. The finalized checklist was applied to compare the groups of anthropogenically and naturally mummified bodies. The finalized checklist contains 97 checkpoints and was divided into two main categories, "A. Soft Tissues of Head and Musculoskeletal System" and "B. Organs and Organ Systems", each including various subcategories. The complete checklist had an intra-observer reliability of 98% and an inter-observer reliability of 93%. Statistical comparison revealed significantly higher values in anthropogenically compared to naturally mummified bodies for the total score and for three subcategories. In conclusion, the developed checklist allows for a standardized assessment and documentation of soft tissue preservation in whole-body computed tomography examinations of human mummies. The scoring system facilitates a quantitative comparison of the soft tissue preservation status between single mummies or mummy collections.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus