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New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Time-scale tree that shows taxa into the family Buthidae with fossils since the Paleogene (Cenozoic) and extinct close relatives in the Mesozoic, according to the current fossil record.The extinct family Protobuthidae is here considered as a basal lineage outside the superfamily Buthoidea after Baptista et al. (2003) [8], and Microcharmus [51] is considered part of Buthidae (= Microcharmidae) after Volschenk et al. (2008) [52]. Note that the Copal taxa: Palaeogrosphus copalensis, Palaeogrosphus jacquesi, Microcharmus henderickxi, within the genera Palaeogrosphus and Microcharmus (Buthidae) [2][51][53][54], respectively, are now placed outside the geological record due to their recent depositional age.
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pone.0133396.g010: Time-scale tree that shows taxa into the family Buthidae with fossils since the Paleogene (Cenozoic) and extinct close relatives in the Mesozoic, according to the current fossil record.The extinct family Protobuthidae is here considered as a basal lineage outside the superfamily Buthoidea after Baptista et al. (2003) [8], and Microcharmus [51] is considered part of Buthidae (= Microcharmidae) after Volschenk et al. (2008) [52]. Note that the Copal taxa: Palaeogrosphus copalensis, Palaeogrosphus jacquesi, Microcharmus henderickxi, within the genera Palaeogrosphus and Microcharmus (Buthidae) [2][51][53][54], respectively, are now placed outside the geological record due to their recent depositional age.

Mentions: The extant forms of the ‘Tityus clathratus’ subclade close to T. apozonalli currently live in the Neotropics of Central and northern South America [51], whereas the distribution of T. apozonalli is limited to the Chiapas amber in the southernmost part of North America during the Miocene. The current distribution of the living buthid scorpions is worldwide except Antarctica [6]. As shown by the fossil record, the family Buthidae is represented by modern forms that occur since the Paleogene of Europe with several genera found in Baltic amber, as well as single genus Uintascorpio found in the Paleogene of North America [14][15] (Fig 10). Several published contributions suggest that extant buthid scorpions from Asia, Africa and South America have a Gondwanaland relationship [6]. Although there is a notable gap in the Mesozoic fossil record (Fig 10), it has been preliminarily considered that the buthid scorpions emerged in Gondwana (near the Permian-Triassic boundary) as predicted by the current worldwide distribution [6]. The superfamily Buthoidea with two families: Buthidae and Microcharmidae, is considered monophyletic, neither the family Archaeobuthidae nor Palaeoburmesebuthus (family Incertae sedis) are currently included in the Buthoidea [6]. The assignment of the Triassic family Protobuthidae into Buthoidea is still inconclusive (Fig 10). Also, the placement of the family Microcharmidae Lourenço, 1996 as separate from the Buthidae is still under debate [6][52]. Based on mesosomal anatomy other authors propose a synonymy of Microcharmidae = Buthidae [53].


New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Time-scale tree that shows taxa into the family Buthidae with fossils since the Paleogene (Cenozoic) and extinct close relatives in the Mesozoic, according to the current fossil record.The extinct family Protobuthidae is here considered as a basal lineage outside the superfamily Buthoidea after Baptista et al. (2003) [8], and Microcharmus [51] is considered part of Buthidae (= Microcharmidae) after Volschenk et al. (2008) [52]. Note that the Copal taxa: Palaeogrosphus copalensis, Palaeogrosphus jacquesi, Microcharmus henderickxi, within the genera Palaeogrosphus and Microcharmus (Buthidae) [2][51][53][54], respectively, are now placed outside the geological record due to their recent depositional age.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526686&req=5

pone.0133396.g010: Time-scale tree that shows taxa into the family Buthidae with fossils since the Paleogene (Cenozoic) and extinct close relatives in the Mesozoic, according to the current fossil record.The extinct family Protobuthidae is here considered as a basal lineage outside the superfamily Buthoidea after Baptista et al. (2003) [8], and Microcharmus [51] is considered part of Buthidae (= Microcharmidae) after Volschenk et al. (2008) [52]. Note that the Copal taxa: Palaeogrosphus copalensis, Palaeogrosphus jacquesi, Microcharmus henderickxi, within the genera Palaeogrosphus and Microcharmus (Buthidae) [2][51][53][54], respectively, are now placed outside the geological record due to their recent depositional age.
Mentions: The extant forms of the ‘Tityus clathratus’ subclade close to T. apozonalli currently live in the Neotropics of Central and northern South America [51], whereas the distribution of T. apozonalli is limited to the Chiapas amber in the southernmost part of North America during the Miocene. The current distribution of the living buthid scorpions is worldwide except Antarctica [6]. As shown by the fossil record, the family Buthidae is represented by modern forms that occur since the Paleogene of Europe with several genera found in Baltic amber, as well as single genus Uintascorpio found in the Paleogene of North America [14][15] (Fig 10). Several published contributions suggest that extant buthid scorpions from Asia, Africa and South America have a Gondwanaland relationship [6]. Although there is a notable gap in the Mesozoic fossil record (Fig 10), it has been preliminarily considered that the buthid scorpions emerged in Gondwana (near the Permian-Triassic boundary) as predicted by the current worldwide distribution [6]. The superfamily Buthoidea with two families: Buthidae and Microcharmidae, is considered monophyletic, neither the family Archaeobuthidae nor Palaeoburmesebuthus (family Incertae sedis) are currently included in the Buthoidea [6]. The assignment of the Triassic family Protobuthidae into Buthoidea is still inconclusive (Fig 10). Also, the placement of the family Microcharmidae Lourenço, 1996 as separate from the Buthidae is still under debate [6][52]. Based on mesosomal anatomy other authors propose a synonymy of Microcharmidae = Buthidae [53].

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus