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New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The phylogenetic status of Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. among fossil buthids from the Middle America amber, Neogene, inferred from data matrix in S1 Table.Characters are described in S1 Appendix. Strict consensus tree based on quantitative and qualitative characters: L = 27, CI = 0.77 and RI = 0.72. Black circles represent synapomorphies and white circle homoplasies. Numbers above circles indicate characters and numbers below branches indicate bootstrap values.
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pone.0133396.g009: The phylogenetic status of Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. among fossil buthids from the Middle America amber, Neogene, inferred from data matrix in S1 Table.Characters are described in S1 Appendix. Strict consensus tree based on quantitative and qualitative characters: L = 27, CI = 0.77 and RI = 0.72. Black circles represent synapomorphies and white circle homoplasies. Numbers above circles indicate characters and numbers below branches indicate bootstrap values.

Mentions: Tityus is a highly diverse group whose genus-level taxonomy and evolutionary relationships is currently problematic. In the past two decades, there has been important progress in identifying and separating related subclades within Tityus based on morphological characters, such as the subgenera proposed by Lourenço (2006) [23]. An attempt to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tityus is beyond the scope of the present paper. However, regarding the phylogenetic status of T. apozonalli among its fossil buthid congeners from both Dominican and Mexican amber, which are preliminary examined herein, the results show a single most parsimonious tree with length (L) = 27, consistency index (CI) = 0.77 and retention index (RI) = 0.72 (Fig 9). The resulting cladogram indicates a basal position of T. apozonalli which is separated from T. azari and T. (Brazilotityus) hartkorni from Dominican amber, as was T. (Brazilotityus) knodeli, previously described in Chiapas amber (Fig 9). T. apozonalli shows a plesiomorphic condition instead of T. (Brazilotityus) knodeli that seems more derived and closer to C. beynai and M. ambarensis. The plesiomorphic condition in T. apozonalli is supported consistently, but not exclusively, by the discernible fulcra that are also present in the ‘Tityus clathratus’ morphotypes, including initially within the Tityus (Archaeotityus) subgenera [23].


New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

The phylogenetic status of Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. among fossil buthids from the Middle America amber, Neogene, inferred from data matrix in S1 Table.Characters are described in S1 Appendix. Strict consensus tree based on quantitative and qualitative characters: L = 27, CI = 0.77 and RI = 0.72. Black circles represent synapomorphies and white circle homoplasies. Numbers above circles indicate characters and numbers below branches indicate bootstrap values.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526686&req=5

pone.0133396.g009: The phylogenetic status of Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. among fossil buthids from the Middle America amber, Neogene, inferred from data matrix in S1 Table.Characters are described in S1 Appendix. Strict consensus tree based on quantitative and qualitative characters: L = 27, CI = 0.77 and RI = 0.72. Black circles represent synapomorphies and white circle homoplasies. Numbers above circles indicate characters and numbers below branches indicate bootstrap values.
Mentions: Tityus is a highly diverse group whose genus-level taxonomy and evolutionary relationships is currently problematic. In the past two decades, there has been important progress in identifying and separating related subclades within Tityus based on morphological characters, such as the subgenera proposed by Lourenço (2006) [23]. An attempt to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of Tityus is beyond the scope of the present paper. However, regarding the phylogenetic status of T. apozonalli among its fossil buthid congeners from both Dominican and Mexican amber, which are preliminary examined herein, the results show a single most parsimonious tree with length (L) = 27, consistency index (CI) = 0.77 and retention index (RI) = 0.72 (Fig 9). The resulting cladogram indicates a basal position of T. apozonalli which is separated from T. azari and T. (Brazilotityus) hartkorni from Dominican amber, as was T. (Brazilotityus) knodeli, previously described in Chiapas amber (Fig 9). T. apozonalli shows a plesiomorphic condition instead of T. (Brazilotityus) knodeli that seems more derived and closer to C. beynai and M. ambarensis. The plesiomorphic condition in T. apozonalli is supported consistently, but not exclusively, by the discernible fulcra that are also present in the ‘Tityus clathratus’ morphotypes, including initially within the Tityus (Archaeotityus) subgenera [23].

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus