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New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.A: general view of sternites and pectines, note the whitish color on pectines and adjacent sternites, scale bar 2 mm. B: Closer view of pectines, scale bar 1 mm.
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pone.0133396.g005: Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.A: general view of sternites and pectines, note the whitish color on pectines and adjacent sternites, scale bar 2 mm. B: Closer view of pectines, scale bar 1 mm.

Mentions: The specimen is embedded in golden yellow amber, tinged with orange, showing cloudy to weakly translucent glossiness, with abundant oblique microfractures (Fig 2). There is a recrystallization pattern (wave-shaped) close to the body, which is a consequence of different crystallization stages during resin hardening (Fig 2) Both fractures and recrystallization have darkened some minute anatomical elements, i.e. trichobothria, carinae and macrosculpture, which are hard to distinguish (Fig 3). There is soil, plant remains, insect parts, bubble molds and undetermined minerals embedded together with the scorpion (Fig 2). Most portions of the carapace and tergites are compressed, almost obliterated, and somewhat translucent, as a consequence of organic decay (Fig 2). This suggests that organic acids in amber have partially dissolved the cuticle. Amber is still chemically reactive in the depositional environment; this affects the organic preservation at different levels [33]. However, pedipalps, chelicerae, caudal segments and telson are less dissolved, staying tightly sclerotized (Figs 3, 5 and 7). Undetermined mineral salts are spread under sternites. These are secondary reactive products from the resin hardening. Pectines and adjacent sternites are slightly bleached (Fig 5). Legs are also translucent, flattened, with inner soft-tissues heavily degraded (Fig 7A). Telson is basally broken close to anus. The true color morphology pattern is well-preserved in general (Fig 7B and 7C).


New Fossil Scorpion from the Chiapas Amber Lagerstätte.

Riquelme F, Villegas-Guzmán G, González-Santillán E, Córdova-Tabares V, Francke OF, Piedra-Jiménez D, Estrada-Ruiz E, Luna-Castro B - PLoS ONE (2015)

Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.A: general view of sternites and pectines, note the whitish color on pectines and adjacent sternites, scale bar 2 mm. B: Closer view of pectines, scale bar 1 mm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526686&req=5

pone.0133396.g005: Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.A: general view of sternites and pectines, note the whitish color on pectines and adjacent sternites, scale bar 2 mm. B: Closer view of pectines, scale bar 1 mm.
Mentions: The specimen is embedded in golden yellow amber, tinged with orange, showing cloudy to weakly translucent glossiness, with abundant oblique microfractures (Fig 2). There is a recrystallization pattern (wave-shaped) close to the body, which is a consequence of different crystallization stages during resin hardening (Fig 2) Both fractures and recrystallization have darkened some minute anatomical elements, i.e. trichobothria, carinae and macrosculpture, which are hard to distinguish (Fig 3). There is soil, plant remains, insect parts, bubble molds and undetermined minerals embedded together with the scorpion (Fig 2). Most portions of the carapace and tergites are compressed, almost obliterated, and somewhat translucent, as a consequence of organic decay (Fig 2). This suggests that organic acids in amber have partially dissolved the cuticle. Amber is still chemically reactive in the depositional environment; this affects the organic preservation at different levels [33]. However, pedipalps, chelicerae, caudal segments and telson are less dissolved, staying tightly sclerotized (Figs 3, 5 and 7). Undetermined mineral salts are spread under sternites. These are secondary reactive products from the resin hardening. Pectines and adjacent sternites are slightly bleached (Fig 5). Legs are also translucent, flattened, with inner soft-tissues heavily degraded (Fig 7A). Telson is basally broken close to anus. The true color morphology pattern is well-preserved in general (Fig 7B and 7C).

Bottom Line: The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae).Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov.Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Escuela de Estudios Superiores de Jicarero, Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Morelos, Jicarero, CP. 62909, Morelos, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
A new species of scorpion is described based on a rare entire adult male preserved in a cloudy amber from Miocene rocks in the Chiapas Highlands, south of Mexico. The amber-bearing beds in Chiapas constitute a Conservation Lagerstätte with outstanding organic preservation inside plant resin. The new species is diagnosed as having putative characters that largely correspond with the genus Tityus Koch, 1836 (Scorpiones, Buthidae). Accordingly, it is now referred to as Tityus apozonalli sp. nov. Its previously unclear phylogenetic relationship among fossil taxa of the family Buthidae from both Dominican and Mexican amber is also examined herein. Preliminarily results indicate a basal condition of T. apozonalli regarding to Tityus geratus Santiago-Blay and Poinar, 1988, Tityus (Brazilotityus) hartkorni Lourenço, 2009, and Tityus azari Lourenço, 2013 from Dominican amber, as was Tityus (Brazilotityus) knodeli Lourenço, 2014 from Mexican amber. Its close relationships with extant Neotropic Tityus-like subclades such as 'Tityus clathratus' and the subgenus Tityus (Archaeotityus) are also discussed. This new taxon adds to the knowledge of New World scorpions from the Miocene that are rarely found trapped in amber.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus