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Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

Freitas LA, Russo CA, Voloch CM, Mutaquiha OC, Marques LP, Schrago CG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus.The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma).Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

No MeSH data available.


Ancestral area reconstruction conducted using the maximum likelihood method in the APE package.Circles depict the relative probabilities of each region. Color codes are as follows: green—Africa; yellow—Americas; blue—Southeast Asia and the Pacific; gray—Europe plus Middle East; and red—India plus West Asia.
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pone.0134462.g002: Ancestral area reconstruction conducted using the maximum likelihood method in the APE package.Circles depict the relative probabilities of each region. Color codes are as follows: green—Africa; yellow—Americas; blue—Southeast Asia and the Pacific; gray—Europe plus Middle East; and red—India plus West Asia.

Mentions: Ancestral area reconstruction presented a higher likelihood that the ancestor of the SKN clade was geographically distributed in the Americas (Fig 2), with 95.2% probability as estimated in Lagrange. An ancestral distribution in Southeast Asia plus the Pacific was favored for the Cellia subgenus, whereas the ancestor of the (A. melas, A. arabiensis, A. gambiae and A. merus) clade was distributed in Africa, with full support in both geographical analyses. Maximum support was also obtained for a Southeast Asia plus the Pacific ancestral distribution for the (A. latens, A. balabacensis, A. dirus, A. farauti, A. koliensis and A. punctulatus) and the (A. sinensis, A.lesteri) clades. Finally, the ancestral area of the (A. atroparvus, A. messeae, A. labranchiae and A. sacharovi) clade was inferred to be India plus West Asia with the highest likelihood. The ancestral geographical distribution of the remaining nodes was not fully resolved.


Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

Freitas LA, Russo CA, Voloch CM, Mutaquiha OC, Marques LP, Schrago CG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Ancestral area reconstruction conducted using the maximum likelihood method in the APE package.Circles depict the relative probabilities of each region. Color codes are as follows: green—Africa; yellow—Americas; blue—Southeast Asia and the Pacific; gray—Europe plus Middle East; and red—India plus West Asia.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526650&req=5

pone.0134462.g002: Ancestral area reconstruction conducted using the maximum likelihood method in the APE package.Circles depict the relative probabilities of each region. Color codes are as follows: green—Africa; yellow—Americas; blue—Southeast Asia and the Pacific; gray—Europe plus Middle East; and red—India plus West Asia.
Mentions: Ancestral area reconstruction presented a higher likelihood that the ancestor of the SKN clade was geographically distributed in the Americas (Fig 2), with 95.2% probability as estimated in Lagrange. An ancestral distribution in Southeast Asia plus the Pacific was favored for the Cellia subgenus, whereas the ancestor of the (A. melas, A. arabiensis, A. gambiae and A. merus) clade was distributed in Africa, with full support in both geographical analyses. Maximum support was also obtained for a Southeast Asia plus the Pacific ancestral distribution for the (A. latens, A. balabacensis, A. dirus, A. farauti, A. koliensis and A. punctulatus) and the (A. sinensis, A.lesteri) clades. Finally, the ancestral area of the (A. atroparvus, A. messeae, A. labranchiae and A. sacharovi) clade was inferred to be India plus West Asia with the highest likelihood. The ancestral geographical distribution of the remaining nodes was not fully resolved.

Bottom Line: The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus.The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma).Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

No MeSH data available.