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Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

Freitas LA, Russo CA, Voloch CM, Mutaquiha OC, Marques LP, Schrago CG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus.The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma).Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

No MeSH data available.


Phylogeny of the Anopheles genus.(a) Maximum likelihood tree with aLRT statistical support. (b) Bayesian inference tree with clade posterior probabilities.
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pone.0134462.g001: Phylogeny of the Anopheles genus.(a) Maximum likelihood tree with aLRT statistical support. (b) Bayesian inference tree with clade posterior probabilities.

Mentions: Statistical tests performed on our trees suggest a relatively high level of support for our main clades (Fig 1a and 1b). Phylogenetic relationships between major clades were, however, poorly supported. Our results indicate that five subgenera are monophyletic and most of the results are backed with statistical support: Anopheles (0.99 aLRT and 100% BP); Cellia (0.93 aLRT and 87% BP); Stethomyia (1.00 aLRT and 100% BP); Kerteszia (0.23 aLRT and 67% BP); and Nyssorhynchus (0.94 aLRT and 96% BP; Fig 1a and 1b). The monophyly of subgenus Lophopodomyia, however, remains to be tested, because only a single species was included (A. squamifemur). Data partitioning into nuclear and mitochondrial segments have not altered the topology of Anopheles evolution in both Bayesian and ML trees.


Diversification of the Genus Anopheles and a Neotropical Clade from the Late Cretaceous.

Freitas LA, Russo CA, Voloch CM, Mutaquiha OC, Marques LP, Schrago CG - PLoS ONE (2015)

Phylogeny of the Anopheles genus.(a) Maximum likelihood tree with aLRT statistical support. (b) Bayesian inference tree with clade posterior probabilities.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526650&req=5

pone.0134462.g001: Phylogeny of the Anopheles genus.(a) Maximum likelihood tree with aLRT statistical support. (b) Bayesian inference tree with clade posterior probabilities.
Mentions: Statistical tests performed on our trees suggest a relatively high level of support for our main clades (Fig 1a and 1b). Phylogenetic relationships between major clades were, however, poorly supported. Our results indicate that five subgenera are monophyletic and most of the results are backed with statistical support: Anopheles (0.99 aLRT and 100% BP); Cellia (0.93 aLRT and 87% BP); Stethomyia (1.00 aLRT and 100% BP); Kerteszia (0.23 aLRT and 67% BP); and Nyssorhynchus (0.94 aLRT and 96% BP; Fig 1a and 1b). The monophyly of subgenus Lophopodomyia, however, remains to be tested, because only a single species was included (A. squamifemur). Data partitioning into nuclear and mitochondrial segments have not altered the topology of Anopheles evolution in both Bayesian and ML trees.

Bottom Line: The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus.The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma).Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Departamento de Genética, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
The Anopheles genus is a member of the Culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. The genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. Despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among Anopheles subgenera. We assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the COI, COII and 5.8S rRNA genes and used maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times of six out of the seven Anopheles subgenera. Our analysis reveals a monophyletic group composed of the three exclusively Neotropical subgenera, Stethomyia, Kerteszia and Nyssorhynchus, which began to diversify in the Late Cretaceous, at approximately 90 Ma. The inferred age of the last common ancestor of the Anopheles genus was ca. 110 Ma. The monophyly of all Anopheles subgenera was supported, although we failed to recover a significant level of statistical support for the monophyly of the Anopheles genus. The ages of the last common ancestors of the Neotropical clade and the Anopheles and Cellia subgenera were inferred to be at the Late Cretaceous (ca. 90 Ma). Our analysis failed to statistically support the monophyly of the Anopheles genus because of an unresolved polytomy between Bironella and A. squamifemur.

No MeSH data available.