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Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries.

Singh GM, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Lim S, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Ezzati M, Mozaffarian D, Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age.Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex.These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Health Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex.

Objective: To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010.

Methods: We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world's population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data.

Results: In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults.

Conclusions: Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy.

No MeSH data available.


Regional age and time trends in SSB consumption and BMI.Each three-dimensional plot shows age, mean BMI, and mean SSB intake on the x-, y-, and z-axes respectively. Each point represents one age group in one country and the points are color-coded by super-region as shown in the legend. The top panel shows data from 1990 and the bottom panel shows data from 2010.
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pone.0124845.g003: Regional age and time trends in SSB consumption and BMI.Each three-dimensional plot shows age, mean BMI, and mean SSB intake on the x-, y-, and z-axes respectively. Each point represents one age group in one country and the points are color-coded by super-region as shown in the legend. The top panel shows data from 1990 and the bottom panel shows data from 2010.

Mentions: At the country level, in 2010 men aged 20–29 in Trinidad and Tobago (5.1, 95%UI: 2.9, 8.7 servings/day) consumed the most SSBs in the world, and women over age 80 in China consumed the least (0.026, 95%CI: 0.022, 0.031 servings/day) (Table B in S1 File). The cross-country correlation between SSB consumption and mean body-mass index (BMI) also followed an inverse age gradient, with strongest correlation in adults under age 45, and weakest correlation in in adults over age 65 (Fig 3). Between 1990 and 2010, SSB consumption increased in several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, however, at the regional level these changes were not statistically significant (Fig A in S1 File).


Global, Regional, and National Consumption of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, Fruit Juices, and Milk: A Systematic Assessment of Beverage Intake in 187 Countries.

Singh GM, Micha R, Khatibzadeh S, Shi P, Lim S, Andrews KG, Engell RE, Ezzati M, Mozaffarian D, Global Burden of Diseases Nutrition and Chronic Diseases Expert Group (NutriCoD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Regional age and time trends in SSB consumption and BMI.Each three-dimensional plot shows age, mean BMI, and mean SSB intake on the x-, y-, and z-axes respectively. Each point represents one age group in one country and the points are color-coded by super-region as shown in the legend. The top panel shows data from 1990 and the bottom panel shows data from 2010.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526649&req=5

pone.0124845.g003: Regional age and time trends in SSB consumption and BMI.Each three-dimensional plot shows age, mean BMI, and mean SSB intake on the x-, y-, and z-axes respectively. Each point represents one age group in one country and the points are color-coded by super-region as shown in the legend. The top panel shows data from 1990 and the bottom panel shows data from 2010.
Mentions: At the country level, in 2010 men aged 20–29 in Trinidad and Tobago (5.1, 95%UI: 2.9, 8.7 servings/day) consumed the most SSBs in the world, and women over age 80 in China consumed the least (0.026, 95%CI: 0.022, 0.031 servings/day) (Table B in S1 File). The cross-country correlation between SSB consumption and mean body-mass index (BMI) also followed an inverse age gradient, with strongest correlation in adults under age 45, and weakest correlation in in adults over age 65 (Fig 3). Between 1990 and 2010, SSB consumption increased in several countries in Latin America and the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, however, at the regional level these changes were not statistically significant (Fig A in S1 File).

Bottom Line: There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age.Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex.These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Friedman School of Nutrition Science and Health Policy, Tufts University, Boston, MA, United States of America.

ABSTRACT

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), fruit juice, and milk are components of diet of major public health interest. To-date, assessment of their global distributions and health impacts has been limited by insufficient comparable and reliable data by country, age, and sex.

Objective: To quantify global, regional, and national levels of SSB, fruit juice, and milk intake by age and sex in adults over age 20 in 2010.

Methods: We identified, obtained, and assessed data on intakes of these beverages in adults, by age and sex, from 193 nationally- or subnationally-representative diet surveys worldwide, representing over half the world's population. We also extracted data relevant to milk, fruit juice, and SSB availability for 187 countries from annual food balance information collected by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization. We developed a hierarchical Bayesian model to account for measurement incomparability, study representativeness, and sampling and modeling uncertainty, and to combine and harmonize nationally representative dietary survey data and food availability data.

Results: In 2010, global average intakes were 0.58 (95%UI: 0.37, 0.89) 8 oz servings/day for SSBs, 0.16 (0.10, 0.26) for fruit juice, and 0.57 (0.39, 0.83) for milk. There was significant heterogeneity in consumption of each beverage by region and age. Intakes of SSB were highest in the Caribbean (1.9 servings/day; 1.2, 3.0); fruit juice consumption was highest in Australia and New Zealand (0.66; 0.35, 1.13); and milk intake was highest in Central Latin America and parts of Europe (1.06; 0.68, 1.59). Intakes of all three beverages were lowest in East Asia and Oceania. Globally and within regions, SSB consumption was highest in younger adults; fruit juice consumption showed little relation with age; and milk intakes were highest in older adults.

Conclusions: Our analysis highlights the enormous spectrum of beverage intakes worldwide, by country, age, and sex. These data are valuable for highlighting gaps in dietary surveillance, determining the impacts of these beverages on global health, and targeting dietary policy.

No MeSH data available.