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Better to Be in Bad Company than to Be Alone? Aedes Vectors Respond Differently to Breeding Site Quality in the Presence of Others.

Riback TI, Honório NA, Pereira RN, Godoy WA, Codeço CT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors.The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length.Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Computação Científica, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
This study focuses on two competing species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), both invasive mosquitoes of the New World. Context-specific competition between immature forms inside containers seems to be an important determinant of the coexistence or displacement of each species in different regions of the world. Here, competition experiments developed at low density (one, two or three larvae) and receiving four different resource food concentration, were designed to test whether Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respond differently to competition, and whether competition can be attributed to a simple division of resources. Three phenotypic traits - larval development, adult survival under starvation and wing length - were used as indicators of performance. Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors. The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length. The response to resource limitation was different when developing with heterospecifics: Ae. aegypti developing with one heterospecific showed faster development, producing smaller adults with shorter lives, while in the presence of two competitors, development increased and adults lived longer. Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival. Overall, our results suggest that response to competition can not simply be attributed to the division of resources, and that larvae of both species presented large phenotypic plasticity in their response to the presence or absence of heterospecifics and conspecifics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Wing length of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.Wing length (mm)–Centered results (Mean±SE) of a) Aedes aegypti and b) Aedes albopictus developed at six different larval density combinations (A: individual alone; B: Larva + 1 conspecific; C: Larva + 2 conspecifics; D: Larva + 1 heterospecific; E: Larva + 1 conspecific +1 heterospecific; F: Larva + 2 heterospecifics) and four food levels (1mg: square; 2mg: circle; 4mg: triangle; 8mg: diamond).
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pone.0134450.g003: Wing length of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.Wing length (mm)–Centered results (Mean±SE) of a) Aedes aegypti and b) Aedes albopictus developed at six different larval density combinations (A: individual alone; B: Larva + 1 conspecific; C: Larva + 2 conspecifics; D: Larva + 1 heterospecific; E: Larva + 1 conspecific +1 heterospecific; F: Larva + 2 heterospecifics) and four food levels (1mg: square; 2mg: circle; 4mg: triangle; 8mg: diamond).

Mentions: Aedes aegypti: larval development time (Fig 1a—6.035 ± 0.37 days, X2 = 1.38, P = 0.71) and adult survival were marginally affected by resource concentration (Fig 2a—X2 = 7.18, P = 0.067). Wing length (Fig 3a) was slightly smaller at the lower food concentrations, but this difference was not significant (X2 = 1.78, P = 0.61).


Better to Be in Bad Company than to Be Alone? Aedes Vectors Respond Differently to Breeding Site Quality in the Presence of Others.

Riback TI, Honório NA, Pereira RN, Godoy WA, Codeço CT - PLoS ONE (2015)

Wing length of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.Wing length (mm)–Centered results (Mean±SE) of a) Aedes aegypti and b) Aedes albopictus developed at six different larval density combinations (A: individual alone; B: Larva + 1 conspecific; C: Larva + 2 conspecifics; D: Larva + 1 heterospecific; E: Larva + 1 conspecific +1 heterospecific; F: Larva + 2 heterospecifics) and four food levels (1mg: square; 2mg: circle; 4mg: triangle; 8mg: diamond).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526638&req=5

pone.0134450.g003: Wing length of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus.Wing length (mm)–Centered results (Mean±SE) of a) Aedes aegypti and b) Aedes albopictus developed at six different larval density combinations (A: individual alone; B: Larva + 1 conspecific; C: Larva + 2 conspecifics; D: Larva + 1 heterospecific; E: Larva + 1 conspecific +1 heterospecific; F: Larva + 2 heterospecifics) and four food levels (1mg: square; 2mg: circle; 4mg: triangle; 8mg: diamond).
Mentions: Aedes aegypti: larval development time (Fig 1a—6.035 ± 0.37 days, X2 = 1.38, P = 0.71) and adult survival were marginally affected by resource concentration (Fig 2a—X2 = 7.18, P = 0.067). Wing length (Fig 3a) was slightly smaller at the lower food concentrations, but this difference was not significant (X2 = 1.78, P = 0.61).

Bottom Line: Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors.The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length.Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Programa de Computação Científica, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ABSTRACT
This study focuses on two competing species, Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae), both invasive mosquitoes of the New World. Context-specific competition between immature forms inside containers seems to be an important determinant of the coexistence or displacement of each species in different regions of the world. Here, competition experiments developed at low density (one, two or three larvae) and receiving four different resource food concentration, were designed to test whether Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti respond differently to competition, and whether competition can be attributed to a simple division of resources. Three phenotypic traits - larval development, adult survival under starvation and wing length - were used as indicators of performance. Larvae of neither species were limited by resource concentration when they were alone, unlike when they developed with competitors. The presence of conspecifics affected Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, inducing slower development, reduced survival and wing length. The response to resource limitation was different when developing with heterospecifics: Ae. aegypti developing with one heterospecific showed faster development, producing smaller adults with shorter lives, while in the presence of two competitors, development increased and adults lived longer. Aedes albopictus demonstrated a better performance when developing with heterospecifics, with no loss in their development period and improved adult survival. Overall, our results suggest that response to competition can not simply be attributed to the division of resources, and that larvae of both species presented large phenotypic plasticity in their response to the presence or absence of heterospecifics and conspecifics.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus