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EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

AU12, lip corner puller, without AU113, sharp lip puller, (A) and AU12 with AU113 (B).Note the difference in the shape at the corner of the mouth. AU12 produces a curvature at the mouth corner; however, when AU113 is applied with AU12 the mouth has an angular appearance at the top corner, with corresponding wrinkles in the skin surrounding the mouth. See S15 Video for a demonstration of these actions acting simultaneously.
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pone.0131738.g007: AU12, lip corner puller, without AU113, sharp lip puller, (A) and AU12 with AU113 (B).Note the difference in the shape at the corner of the mouth. AU12 produces a curvature at the mouth corner; however, when AU113 is applied with AU12 the mouth has an angular appearance at the top corner, with corresponding wrinkles in the skin surrounding the mouth. See S15 Video for a demonstration of these actions acting simultaneously.

Mentions: D. Subtle differences: AU113 differs from AU12 in the direction of the movement. In AU12 the skin is drawn back at the corners of the mouth, whereas in AU113 the skin is drawn up towards the bridge of the nose. AU113 and AU12 do sometimes occur together, but when this happens the actions occur sequentially with AU113 generally occurring first, and so the timing of the actions can help distinguish them. Additionally, when AU113 is acting with AU12 the curve at the corner of the mouth becomes much more angular (Fig 7). AU113 also differs from AU10, because the movement is restricted to the corners of the lips so the medial section of the upper lip does not rise.


EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

AU12, lip corner puller, without AU113, sharp lip puller, (A) and AU12 with AU113 (B).Note the difference in the shape at the corner of the mouth. AU12 produces a curvature at the mouth corner; however, when AU113 is applied with AU12 the mouth has an angular appearance at the top corner, with corresponding wrinkles in the skin surrounding the mouth. See S15 Video for a demonstration of these actions acting simultaneously.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526551&req=5

pone.0131738.g007: AU12, lip corner puller, without AU113, sharp lip puller, (A) and AU12 with AU113 (B).Note the difference in the shape at the corner of the mouth. AU12 produces a curvature at the mouth corner; however, when AU113 is applied with AU12 the mouth has an angular appearance at the top corner, with corresponding wrinkles in the skin surrounding the mouth. See S15 Video for a demonstration of these actions acting simultaneously.
Mentions: D. Subtle differences: AU113 differs from AU12 in the direction of the movement. In AU12 the skin is drawn back at the corners of the mouth, whereas in AU113 the skin is drawn up towards the bridge of the nose. AU113 and AU12 do sometimes occur together, but when this happens the actions occur sequentially with AU113 generally occurring first, and so the timing of the actions can help distinguish them. Additionally, when AU113 is acting with AU12 the curve at the corner of the mouth becomes much more angular (Fig 7). AU113 also differs from AU10, because the movement is restricted to the corners of the lips so the medial section of the upper lip does not rise.

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus