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EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

A guide to anatomical direction.
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pone.0131738.g003: A guide to anatomical direction.

Mentions: The anatomy of the eye area is different in horses as compared to humans, other primates, and dogs (see Fig 2 for a visual representation of the key facial landmarks of the horse and Fig 3 for a guide to anatomical direction). Horses do not have the features, such as eyebrows or the prominent brow ridge, that are thought to accentuate brow movements in other animals. However, horses do have a facial action that raises skin above the inner corner of the eye. This is similar to the movement derived from the frontalis in humans (inner brow raiser—AU1), although in horses the action is underpinned by the levator anguli occuli medialis and the corrugator supercilii, making it analogous to the inner brow raiser seen in dogs and cats. Consequently, the code used to denote this movement in dogFACS and catFACS (AU101) is also used here.


EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

A guide to anatomical direction.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526551&req=5

pone.0131738.g003: A guide to anatomical direction.
Mentions: The anatomy of the eye area is different in horses as compared to humans, other primates, and dogs (see Fig 2 for a visual representation of the key facial landmarks of the horse and Fig 3 for a guide to anatomical direction). Horses do not have the features, such as eyebrows or the prominent brow ridge, that are thought to accentuate brow movements in other animals. However, horses do have a facial action that raises skin above the inner corner of the eye. This is similar to the movement derived from the frontalis in humans (inner brow raiser—AU1), although in horses the action is underpinned by the levator anguli occuli medialis and the corrugator supercilii, making it analogous to the inner brow raiser seen in dogs and cats. Consequently, the code used to denote this movement in dogFACS and catFACS (AU101) is also used here.

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus