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EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

The facial muscles of the horse.NB. Levator labii superioris a.n. represents the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, which is often also called the levator nasolabialis. Synonyms for the levator annuli oris fascialis muscle include the dilator nares muscle and the caninus muscle. The frontoscutularis has a frontal and a temporal arm.
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pone.0131738.g001: The facial muscles of the horse.NB. Levator labii superioris a.n. represents the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, which is often also called the levator nasolabialis. Synonyms for the levator annuli oris fascialis muscle include the dilator nares muscle and the caninus muscle. The frontoscutularis has a frontal and a temporal arm.

Mentions: Fig 1 depicts the facial muscles of the horse (S1, S2, and S3 Figs show the facial muscles located in our dissection). Overall, the facial muscles of horses are very complex, and although there are differences, there are a surprising number of similarities with humans and other primates. Table 1 summarises the findings in comparison to the human facial muscles. Detailed descriptions of the muscles are given in S2 Text.


EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

Wathan J, Burrows AM, Waller BM, McComb K - PLoS ONE (2015)

The facial muscles of the horse.NB. Levator labii superioris a.n. represents the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, which is often also called the levator nasolabialis. Synonyms for the levator annuli oris fascialis muscle include the dilator nares muscle and the caninus muscle. The frontoscutularis has a frontal and a temporal arm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526551&req=5

pone.0131738.g001: The facial muscles of the horse.NB. Levator labii superioris a.n. represents the levator labii superioris alaeque nasi, which is often also called the levator nasolabialis. Synonyms for the levator annuli oris fascialis muscle include the dilator nares muscle and the caninus muscle. The frontoscutularis has a frontal and a temporal arm.
Mentions: Fig 1 depicts the facial muscles of the horse (S1, S2, and S3 Figs show the facial muscles located in our dissection). Overall, the facial muscles of horses are very complex, and although there are differences, there are a surprising number of similarities with humans and other primates. Table 1 summarises the findings in comparison to the human facial muscles. Detailed descriptions of the muscles are given in S2 Text.

Bottom Line: FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation.Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions.A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Mammal Communication and Cognition Research, School of Psychology, University of Sussex, Brighton, United Kingdom.

ABSTRACT
Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus