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Cilostazol Upregulates Autophagy via SIRT1 Activation: Reducing Amyloid-β Peptide and APP-CTFβ Levels in Neuronal Cells.

Lee HR, Shin HK, Park SY, Kim HY, Bae SS, Lee WS, Rhim BY, Hong KW, Kim CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ) by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5), and SIRT1 decreased significantly.Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy.In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Gene & Cell Therapy Research Center for Vessel-associated Diseases, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea; Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Autophagy is a vital pathway for the removal of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and the aggregated proteins that cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ) by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5), and SIRT1 decreased significantly. Pretreatment with cilostazol (10-30 μM) or resveratrol (20 μM) prevented these Aβ1-42 evoked suppressions. LC3-II (a marker of mammalian autophagy) levels were significantly increased by cilostazol, and this increase was reduced by 3-methyladenine. To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, N2aSwe cells (N2a cells stably expressing human APP containing the Swedish mutation) were cultured in medium with or without tetracycline (Tet+ for 48 h and then placed in Tet- condition). Aβ and APP-CTFβ expressions were increased after 12~24 h in Tet- condition, and these increased expressions were significantly reduced by pretreating cilostazol. Cilostazol-induced reductions in the expressions of Aβ and APP-CTFβ were blocked by bafilomycin A1 (a blocker of autophagosome to lysosome fusion). After knockdown of the SIRT1 gene (to ~40% in SIRT1 protein), cilostazol failed to elevate the expressions of beclin-1, Atg5, and LC3-II, indicating that cilostazol increases these expressions by up-regulating SIRT1. Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy. In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Increases in the expressions of beclin-1 (A), Atg5 (B), and SIRT1 protein (C) by cilostazol (CSZ, 3–30 μM; incubation for 3 h) and resveratrol (RES, 20 μM) in the presence of exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in N2a cells. D. Enhancement of LC3-II levels in the culture media containing 10 μM retinoic acid by cilostazol (10 μM), and its blockade by 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 2.5 mM).Means ± SDs are expressed as percentages of DMSO (vehicle) or absence of retinoic acid (RA-) (N = 4). ###P < 0.001, RA−; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. DMSO; †††P < 0.001 vs. 10 μM cilostazol.
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pone.0134486.g002: Increases in the expressions of beclin-1 (A), Atg5 (B), and SIRT1 protein (C) by cilostazol (CSZ, 3–30 μM; incubation for 3 h) and resveratrol (RES, 20 μM) in the presence of exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in N2a cells. D. Enhancement of LC3-II levels in the culture media containing 10 μM retinoic acid by cilostazol (10 μM), and its blockade by 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 2.5 mM).Means ± SDs are expressed as percentages of DMSO (vehicle) or absence of retinoic acid (RA-) (N = 4). ###P < 0.001, RA−; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. DMSO; †††P < 0.001 vs. 10 μM cilostazol.

Mentions: However, when cells were pretreated with cilostazol (3, 10, or 30 μM) or resveratrol (20 μM) for 3 h prior to exposure to exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in medium, beclin-1 expression reduction by Aβ1–42 was significantly prevented and rather reversed by cilostazol (by 140.0 ± 7.3% and 165.8 ± 13.2% at 10 and 30 μM, respectively) (F3,12 = 16.48, P < 0.0001). Similarly, pretreatment with cilostazol (3, 10 and 30 μM) also significantly reversed Aβ1-42-induced reductions in the expressions of Atg5 (F3,12 = 6.39, P < 0.0033) and SIRT1 (F3,12 = 11.86, P < 0.0002). Similarly, resveratrol (20 μM) also prevented Aβ1-42-induced reductions of beclin-1(by 145.2 ± 5.4%, P < 0.001), Atg5 (by 122.6 ± 20.3%, P < 0.05), and SIRT1 protein (by 120.9 ± 10.2%, P < 0.05), respectively (Fig 2A, 2B and 2C).


Cilostazol Upregulates Autophagy via SIRT1 Activation: Reducing Amyloid-β Peptide and APP-CTFβ Levels in Neuronal Cells.

Lee HR, Shin HK, Park SY, Kim HY, Bae SS, Lee WS, Rhim BY, Hong KW, Kim CD - PLoS ONE (2015)

Increases in the expressions of beclin-1 (A), Atg5 (B), and SIRT1 protein (C) by cilostazol (CSZ, 3–30 μM; incubation for 3 h) and resveratrol (RES, 20 μM) in the presence of exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in N2a cells. D. Enhancement of LC3-II levels in the culture media containing 10 μM retinoic acid by cilostazol (10 μM), and its blockade by 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 2.5 mM).Means ± SDs are expressed as percentages of DMSO (vehicle) or absence of retinoic acid (RA-) (N = 4). ###P < 0.001, RA−; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. DMSO; †††P < 0.001 vs. 10 μM cilostazol.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526537&req=5

pone.0134486.g002: Increases in the expressions of beclin-1 (A), Atg5 (B), and SIRT1 protein (C) by cilostazol (CSZ, 3–30 μM; incubation for 3 h) and resveratrol (RES, 20 μM) in the presence of exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in N2a cells. D. Enhancement of LC3-II levels in the culture media containing 10 μM retinoic acid by cilostazol (10 μM), and its blockade by 3-methyladenine (3-MA, 2.5 mM).Means ± SDs are expressed as percentages of DMSO (vehicle) or absence of retinoic acid (RA-) (N = 4). ###P < 0.001, RA−; *P < 0.05, **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001 vs. DMSO; †††P < 0.001 vs. 10 μM cilostazol.
Mentions: However, when cells were pretreated with cilostazol (3, 10, or 30 μM) or resveratrol (20 μM) for 3 h prior to exposure to exogenous Aβ1–42 (10 μM) in medium, beclin-1 expression reduction by Aβ1–42 was significantly prevented and rather reversed by cilostazol (by 140.0 ± 7.3% and 165.8 ± 13.2% at 10 and 30 μM, respectively) (F3,12 = 16.48, P < 0.0001). Similarly, pretreatment with cilostazol (3, 10 and 30 μM) also significantly reversed Aβ1-42-induced reductions in the expressions of Atg5 (F3,12 = 6.39, P < 0.0033) and SIRT1 (F3,12 = 11.86, P < 0.0002). Similarly, resveratrol (20 μM) also prevented Aβ1-42-induced reductions of beclin-1(by 145.2 ± 5.4%, P < 0.001), Atg5 (by 122.6 ± 20.3%, P < 0.05), and SIRT1 protein (by 120.9 ± 10.2%, P < 0.05), respectively (Fig 2A, 2B and 2C).

Bottom Line: We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ) by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5), and SIRT1 decreased significantly.Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy.In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Gene & Cell Therapy Research Center for Vessel-associated Diseases, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea; Medical Research Center for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Pusan National University, Yangsan-si, Gyeongsangnam-do, Republic of Korea.

ABSTRACT
Autophagy is a vital pathway for the removal of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and the aggregated proteins that cause Alzheimer's disease (AD). We previously found that cilostazol induced SIRT1 expression and its activity in neuronal cells, and thus, we hypothesized that cilostazol might stimulate clearances of Aβ and C-terminal APP fragment β subunit (APP-CTFβ) by up-regulating autophagy.When N2a cells were exposed to soluble Aβ1-42, protein levels of beclin-1, autophagy-related protein5 (Atg5), and SIRT1 decreased significantly. Pretreatment with cilostazol (10-30 μM) or resveratrol (20 μM) prevented these Aβ1-42 evoked suppressions. LC3-II (a marker of mammalian autophagy) levels were significantly increased by cilostazol, and this increase was reduced by 3-methyladenine. To evoke endogenous Aβ overproduction, N2aSwe cells (N2a cells stably expressing human APP containing the Swedish mutation) were cultured in medium with or without tetracycline (Tet+ for 48 h and then placed in Tet- condition). Aβ and APP-CTFβ expressions were increased after 12~24 h in Tet- condition, and these increased expressions were significantly reduced by pretreating cilostazol. Cilostazol-induced reductions in the expressions of Aβ and APP-CTFβ were blocked by bafilomycin A1 (a blocker of autophagosome to lysosome fusion). After knockdown of the SIRT1 gene (to ~40% in SIRT1 protein), cilostazol failed to elevate the expressions of beclin-1, Atg5, and LC3-II, indicating that cilostazol increases these expressions by up-regulating SIRT1. Further, decreased cell viability induced by Aβ was prevented by cilostazol, and this inhibition was reversed by 3-methyladenine, indicating that the protective effect of cilostazol against Aβ induced neurotoxicity is, in part, ascribable to the induction of autophagy. In conclusion, cilostazol modulates autophagy by increasing the activation of SIRT1, and thereby enhances Aβ clearance and increases cell viability.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus