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Rescue of Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome by Antibiotics or Faecal Transplantation in a Rat Model of Obesity.

Di Luccia B, Crescenzo R, Mazzoli A, Cigliano L, Venditti P, Walser JC, Widmer A, Baccigalupi L, Ricca E, Iossa S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: Body composition, plasma metabolic parameters and markers of tissue oxidative stress were measured in all groups.The fructose-rich diet induced markers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and oxidative stress, that were all significantly reduced when the animals were treated with antibiotic or faecal samples.The number of members of two bacterial genera, Coprococcus and Ruminococcus, was increased by the fructose-rich diet and reduced by both antibiotic and faecal treatments, pointing to a correlation between their abundance and the development of the metabolic syndrome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University "Federico II" of Naples, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A fructose-rich diet can induce metabolic syndrome, a combination of health disorders that increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Diet is also known to alter the microbial composition of the gut, although it is not clear whether such alteration contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to assess the possible link between the gut microbiota and the development of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model of obesity. Rats were fed either a standard or high-fructose diet. Groups of fructose-fed rats were treated with either antibiotics or faecal samples from control rats by oral gavage. Body composition, plasma metabolic parameters and markers of tissue oxidative stress were measured in all groups. A 16S DNA-sequencing approach was used to evaluate the bacterial composition of the gut of animals under different diets. The fructose-rich diet induced markers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and oxidative stress, that were all significantly reduced when the animals were treated with antibiotic or faecal samples. The number of members of two bacterial genera, Coprococcus and Ruminococcus, was increased by the fructose-rich diet and reduced by both antibiotic and faecal treatments, pointing to a correlation between their abundance and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Our data indicate that in rats fed a fructose-rich diet the development of metabolic syndrome is directly correlated with variations of the gut content of specific bacterial taxa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Variation of bacterial composition in/among the samples in control (C), control+antibiotic (CA), fructose-fed (F), fructose-fed+antibiotic (FA) and fructose-fed+faecal samples (FT) rats.(A) Alpha-diversity plot. The Chao1 species richness estimator indicates a higher microbial complexity in the C, F, FT groups than in the CA and FA groups. Values are reported as means±SEM of six different rats. (B) Beta-diversity is shown by Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA), based on UniFrac method. The plot displays two main clusters: C, F and FT belong to cluster I (straight line), while CA and FA belong to cluster II (dashed line).
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pone.0134893.g005: Variation of bacterial composition in/among the samples in control (C), control+antibiotic (CA), fructose-fed (F), fructose-fed+antibiotic (FA) and fructose-fed+faecal samples (FT) rats.(A) Alpha-diversity plot. The Chao1 species richness estimator indicates a higher microbial complexity in the C, F, FT groups than in the CA and FA groups. Values are reported as means±SEM of six different rats. (B) Beta-diversity is shown by Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA), based on UniFrac method. The plot displays two main clusters: C, F and FT belong to cluster I (straight line), while CA and FA belong to cluster II (dashed line).

Mentions: The bacterial content of the samples was estimated by Chao1 algorithm (alpha-diversity metric) and showed a decreased microbial complexity in samples CA and FA compared to the other three groups (Fig 5A). This is not surprising and indicates that the antibiotic treatment had strongly altered the gut microbial composition causing a reduction of the microbial diversity. In order to analyze relationships among samples based on differences in phylogenetic diversity (beta-diversity metric), principle coordinates (PC) were calculated using UniFrac distances [34] between samples. Sample distribution in the PCoA plot (Fig 5B) clearly showed two main clusters, one containing CA and FA samples and another one containing C, F and FT samples. Similar results were obtained when the PCoA plot was rerun exclusively with C, F and FT rats (S2 Fig). Results of Fig 5, in agreement with the taxonomical assignment at phylum and class level of Fig 4 indicate that the microbial composition of the caecum of animals treated with antibiotics completely differs from that of animals not under antibiotic treatment. Because of the strong alterations, only data from animals not treated with antibiotics (C, F and FT groups) were considered for further analysis. The detailed composition of microbiota from CA and FA rats is reported in S3 Fig.


Rescue of Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome by Antibiotics or Faecal Transplantation in a Rat Model of Obesity.

Di Luccia B, Crescenzo R, Mazzoli A, Cigliano L, Venditti P, Walser JC, Widmer A, Baccigalupi L, Ricca E, Iossa S - PLoS ONE (2015)

Variation of bacterial composition in/among the samples in control (C), control+antibiotic (CA), fructose-fed (F), fructose-fed+antibiotic (FA) and fructose-fed+faecal samples (FT) rats.(A) Alpha-diversity plot. The Chao1 species richness estimator indicates a higher microbial complexity in the C, F, FT groups than in the CA and FA groups. Values are reported as means±SEM of six different rats. (B) Beta-diversity is shown by Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA), based on UniFrac method. The plot displays two main clusters: C, F and FT belong to cluster I (straight line), while CA and FA belong to cluster II (dashed line).
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526532&req=5

pone.0134893.g005: Variation of bacterial composition in/among the samples in control (C), control+antibiotic (CA), fructose-fed (F), fructose-fed+antibiotic (FA) and fructose-fed+faecal samples (FT) rats.(A) Alpha-diversity plot. The Chao1 species richness estimator indicates a higher microbial complexity in the C, F, FT groups than in the CA and FA groups. Values are reported as means±SEM of six different rats. (B) Beta-diversity is shown by Principal Coordinates Analysis (PCoA), based on UniFrac method. The plot displays two main clusters: C, F and FT belong to cluster I (straight line), while CA and FA belong to cluster II (dashed line).
Mentions: The bacterial content of the samples was estimated by Chao1 algorithm (alpha-diversity metric) and showed a decreased microbial complexity in samples CA and FA compared to the other three groups (Fig 5A). This is not surprising and indicates that the antibiotic treatment had strongly altered the gut microbial composition causing a reduction of the microbial diversity. In order to analyze relationships among samples based on differences in phylogenetic diversity (beta-diversity metric), principle coordinates (PC) were calculated using UniFrac distances [34] between samples. Sample distribution in the PCoA plot (Fig 5B) clearly showed two main clusters, one containing CA and FA samples and another one containing C, F and FT samples. Similar results were obtained when the PCoA plot was rerun exclusively with C, F and FT rats (S2 Fig). Results of Fig 5, in agreement with the taxonomical assignment at phylum and class level of Fig 4 indicate that the microbial composition of the caecum of animals treated with antibiotics completely differs from that of animals not under antibiotic treatment. Because of the strong alterations, only data from animals not treated with antibiotics (C, F and FT groups) were considered for further analysis. The detailed composition of microbiota from CA and FA rats is reported in S3 Fig.

Bottom Line: Body composition, plasma metabolic parameters and markers of tissue oxidative stress were measured in all groups.The fructose-rich diet induced markers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and oxidative stress, that were all significantly reduced when the animals were treated with antibiotic or faecal samples.The number of members of two bacterial genera, Coprococcus and Ruminococcus, was increased by the fructose-rich diet and reduced by both antibiotic and faecal treatments, pointing to a correlation between their abundance and the development of the metabolic syndrome.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biology, University "Federico II" of Naples, Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
A fructose-rich diet can induce metabolic syndrome, a combination of health disorders that increases the risk of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Diet is also known to alter the microbial composition of the gut, although it is not clear whether such alteration contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this work was to assess the possible link between the gut microbiota and the development of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in a rat model of obesity. Rats were fed either a standard or high-fructose diet. Groups of fructose-fed rats were treated with either antibiotics or faecal samples from control rats by oral gavage. Body composition, plasma metabolic parameters and markers of tissue oxidative stress were measured in all groups. A 16S DNA-sequencing approach was used to evaluate the bacterial composition of the gut of animals under different diets. The fructose-rich diet induced markers of metabolic syndrome, inflammation and oxidative stress, that were all significantly reduced when the animals were treated with antibiotic or faecal samples. The number of members of two bacterial genera, Coprococcus and Ruminococcus, was increased by the fructose-rich diet and reduced by both antibiotic and faecal treatments, pointing to a correlation between their abundance and the development of the metabolic syndrome. Our data indicate that in rats fed a fructose-rich diet the development of metabolic syndrome is directly correlated with variations of the gut content of specific bacterial taxa.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus