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Stimulation of Cell Elongation by Tetraploidy in Hypocotyls of Dark-Grown Arabidopsis Seedlings.

Narukawa H, Yokoyama R, Komaki S, Sugimoto K, Nishitani K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: The longer hypocotyl in the tetraploid seedlings developed as a result of enhanced cell elongation rather than by an increase in cell number.DNA microarray analysis showed that genes involved in the transport of cuticle precursors were downregulated in a defined region of the tetraploid hypocotyl when compared to the diploid hypocotyl.Taken together, these data indicate that promotion of cell elongation is responsible for ploidy-dependent size determination in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, and that this process is directly or indirectly related to cuticular function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plant Cell Wall Biology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plant size is largely determined by the size of individual cells. A number of studies showed a link between ploidy and cell size in land plants, but this link remains controversial. In this study, post-germination growth, which occurs entirely by cell elongation, was examined in diploid and autotetraploid hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Final hypocotyl length was longer in tetraploid plants than in diploid plants, particularly when seedlings were grown in the dark. The longer hypocotyl in the tetraploid seedlings developed as a result of enhanced cell elongation rather than by an increase in cell number. DNA microarray analysis showed that genes involved in the transport of cuticle precursors were downregulated in a defined region of the tetraploid hypocotyl when compared to the diploid hypocotyl. Cuticle permeability, as assessed by toluidine-blue staining, and cuticular structure, as visualized by electron microscopy, were altered in tetraploid plants. Taken together, these data indicate that promotion of cell elongation is responsible for ploidy-dependent size determination in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, and that this process is directly or indirectly related to cuticular function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Cuticular structure in diploid and tetraploid dark-grown hypocotyls as assessed by transmission electron microscopy.Transmission electron micrographs of cuticle in epidermal cells derived from the apical 3 mm region of 7-day-old dark-grown hypocotyl of diploid (A) and tetraploid (B) seedlings. CW, cell wall; 2x, diploid plants; 4x, tetraploid plants. Bars = 100 nm.
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pone.0134547.g005: Cuticular structure in diploid and tetraploid dark-grown hypocotyls as assessed by transmission electron microscopy.Transmission electron micrographs of cuticle in epidermal cells derived from the apical 3 mm region of 7-day-old dark-grown hypocotyl of diploid (A) and tetraploid (B) seedlings. CW, cell wall; 2x, diploid plants; 4x, tetraploid plants. Bars = 100 nm.

Mentions: Finally, using TEM, we examined the fine structure of the cuticle layer at the apical region of the hypocotyl in tetraploid and diploid seedlings. Osmium tetroxide staining revealed that the cuticular layer was more diffuse in tetraploid hypocotyls than in diploid hypocotyls, and was approximately 40% thicker in tetraploid than in diploid (Fig 5A and 5B). Similar alterations in the fine structure of the cuticle layer were observed in mutants defective in cuticle formation [21–23].


Stimulation of Cell Elongation by Tetraploidy in Hypocotyls of Dark-Grown Arabidopsis Seedlings.

Narukawa H, Yokoyama R, Komaki S, Sugimoto K, Nishitani K - PLoS ONE (2015)

Cuticular structure in diploid and tetraploid dark-grown hypocotyls as assessed by transmission electron microscopy.Transmission electron micrographs of cuticle in epidermal cells derived from the apical 3 mm region of 7-day-old dark-grown hypocotyl of diploid (A) and tetraploid (B) seedlings. CW, cell wall; 2x, diploid plants; 4x, tetraploid plants. Bars = 100 nm.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526521&req=5

pone.0134547.g005: Cuticular structure in diploid and tetraploid dark-grown hypocotyls as assessed by transmission electron microscopy.Transmission electron micrographs of cuticle in epidermal cells derived from the apical 3 mm region of 7-day-old dark-grown hypocotyl of diploid (A) and tetraploid (B) seedlings. CW, cell wall; 2x, diploid plants; 4x, tetraploid plants. Bars = 100 nm.
Mentions: Finally, using TEM, we examined the fine structure of the cuticle layer at the apical region of the hypocotyl in tetraploid and diploid seedlings. Osmium tetroxide staining revealed that the cuticular layer was more diffuse in tetraploid hypocotyls than in diploid hypocotyls, and was approximately 40% thicker in tetraploid than in diploid (Fig 5A and 5B). Similar alterations in the fine structure of the cuticle layer were observed in mutants defective in cuticle formation [21–23].

Bottom Line: The longer hypocotyl in the tetraploid seedlings developed as a result of enhanced cell elongation rather than by an increase in cell number.DNA microarray analysis showed that genes involved in the transport of cuticle precursors were downregulated in a defined region of the tetraploid hypocotyl when compared to the diploid hypocotyl.Taken together, these data indicate that promotion of cell elongation is responsible for ploidy-dependent size determination in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, and that this process is directly or indirectly related to cuticular function.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory of Plant Cell Wall Biology, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan.

ABSTRACT
Plant size is largely determined by the size of individual cells. A number of studies showed a link between ploidy and cell size in land plants, but this link remains controversial. In this study, post-germination growth, which occurs entirely by cell elongation, was examined in diploid and autotetraploid hypocotyls of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Final hypocotyl length was longer in tetraploid plants than in diploid plants, particularly when seedlings were grown in the dark. The longer hypocotyl in the tetraploid seedlings developed as a result of enhanced cell elongation rather than by an increase in cell number. DNA microarray analysis showed that genes involved in the transport of cuticle precursors were downregulated in a defined region of the tetraploid hypocotyl when compared to the diploid hypocotyl. Cuticle permeability, as assessed by toluidine-blue staining, and cuticular structure, as visualized by electron microscopy, were altered in tetraploid plants. Taken together, these data indicate that promotion of cell elongation is responsible for ploidy-dependent size determination in the Arabidopsis hypocotyl, and that this process is directly or indirectly related to cuticular function.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus