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How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.


Ratio of tissue nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) for adult mosquitoes across different a) species and ratios (animal:plant) and b) species and sex.Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
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pone.0133734.g005: Ratio of tissue nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) for adult mosquitoes across different a) species and ratios (animal:plant) and b) species and sex.Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.

Mentions: As the statistical outcomes of the separate tests on nutrient values and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen were the same, we present the significant results for only the nutrient ratio (Table 2), and present the means for all species by sex by detritus combinations for both percent nitrogen and percent carbon (Table 3). These latter results were included to facilitate comparison with previous studies [8, 9]. The amount of carbon was similar between detritus types, however animal detritus contained more than three times the amount of nitrogen compared to plant detritus (Table 3). Results of MANOVA on carbon and nitrogen signatures in adult mosquitoes resulted in significant effects of species, sex, and detritus ratio, as well as interactions between species and sex and species and ratio (Table 2). For all effects, SCCs were generally larger for nitrogen compared to carbon. The results for the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (Table 2) paralleled the individual nutrient results (Table 3). Specifically, we detected a species (F2,42 = 137.35, P < 0.001), sex (F1,42 = 9.62, P = 0.003), and detritus ratio effect (F3,42 = 61.98, P < 0.001), as well as interaction between species and ratio (F6,42 = 4.18, P = 0.022) and species and sex (F2,42 = 4.99, P = 0.011) (Fig 5). For the species by ratio interaction, A. aegypti had a higher ratio in treatment levels containing animal detritus (2:10, 1:1, 2:0) compared to leaf alone (Fig 5A). Aedes albopictus showed a significant increase in their C:N ratio from 0:10 to 2:10 to 1:1 to 2:0 (Fig 5A). Culex quinquefasciatus showed less variation in the ratio across detritus treatments, with higher values in treatment levels with high levels of animal detritus (2:0, 2:10) compared to those with low (1:1) or no (0:10) animal detritus (Fig 5A). Differences were also evident among species within detritus levels. Aedes always had a higher ratio compared to Culex for all treatment levels (Fig 5A). There were no differences in ratios in carbon and nitrogen between male and female Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus, however all Aedes were different than Culex males and females, with male Culex quinquefasciatus also being significantly higher than female C. quinquefasciatus (Fig 5B).


How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Ratio of tissue nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) for adult mosquitoes across different a) species and ratios (animal:plant) and b) species and sex.Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526359&req=5

pone.0133734.g005: Ratio of tissue nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) for adult mosquitoes across different a) species and ratios (animal:plant) and b) species and sex.Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
Mentions: As the statistical outcomes of the separate tests on nutrient values and the ratio of carbon to nitrogen were the same, we present the significant results for only the nutrient ratio (Table 2), and present the means for all species by sex by detritus combinations for both percent nitrogen and percent carbon (Table 3). These latter results were included to facilitate comparison with previous studies [8, 9]. The amount of carbon was similar between detritus types, however animal detritus contained more than three times the amount of nitrogen compared to plant detritus (Table 3). Results of MANOVA on carbon and nitrogen signatures in adult mosquitoes resulted in significant effects of species, sex, and detritus ratio, as well as interactions between species and sex and species and ratio (Table 2). For all effects, SCCs were generally larger for nitrogen compared to carbon. The results for the ratio of carbon to nitrogen (Table 2) paralleled the individual nutrient results (Table 3). Specifically, we detected a species (F2,42 = 137.35, P < 0.001), sex (F1,42 = 9.62, P = 0.003), and detritus ratio effect (F3,42 = 61.98, P < 0.001), as well as interaction between species and ratio (F6,42 = 4.18, P = 0.022) and species and sex (F2,42 = 4.99, P = 0.011) (Fig 5). For the species by ratio interaction, A. aegypti had a higher ratio in treatment levels containing animal detritus (2:10, 1:1, 2:0) compared to leaf alone (Fig 5A). Aedes albopictus showed a significant increase in their C:N ratio from 0:10 to 2:10 to 1:1 to 2:0 (Fig 5A). Culex quinquefasciatus showed less variation in the ratio across detritus treatments, with higher values in treatment levels with high levels of animal detritus (2:0, 2:10) compared to those with low (1:1) or no (0:10) animal detritus (Fig 5A). Differences were also evident among species within detritus levels. Aedes always had a higher ratio compared to Culex for all treatment levels (Fig 5A). There were no differences in ratios in carbon and nitrogen between male and female Aedes aegypti and A. albopictus, however all Aedes were different than Culex males and females, with male Culex quinquefasciatus also being significantly higher than female C. quinquefasciatus (Fig 5B).

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.