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How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.


Bi-plot of stable isotope composition of detritus and adult Aedes aegypti (AE), A. albopictus (AA), and Culex quinquefasciatus (CX) across detritus ratios (animal:plant).Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
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pone.0133734.g004: Bi-plot of stable isotope composition of detritus and adult Aedes aegypti (AE), A. albopictus (AA), and Culex quinquefasciatus (CX) across detritus ratios (animal:plant).Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.

Mentions: Stable isotopes values showed significant variation among species and detritus ratio, as well as their interaction; other effects were not significant (Table 1). For the detritus by ratio interaction, SCC’s were large and negative for δ15N and large and positive for δ13C suggesting both were important for multivariate effects. Within species, adults were generally more enriched in δ15N when grown either on animal detritus alone (2:0) or a 1:1 ratio of animal and plant detritus compared to the 2:10 ratio or plant only environments (Fig 4). Aedes were generally more enriched in δ15N compared to Culex. Specifically, Aedes grown in animal-only or plant only environments had higher values compared to Culex, with no differences among species in the 1:1 and 2:10 ratio (Fig 4). For δ13C, values for adults were highest in the 2:0 and 1:1 ratios, intermediate in the 2:10 ratio, and lowest in the 0:10 ratio for all species (Fig 4). The lowest values for δ13C and δ15N were found in the leaf-only environments for all species. Values of δ15N for pure crickets were generally higher compared to all species and detritus combinations except when larvae were grown in animal detritus alone (Fig 4).


How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bi-plot of stable isotope composition of detritus and adult Aedes aegypti (AE), A. albopictus (AA), and Culex quinquefasciatus (CX) across detritus ratios (animal:plant).Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526359&req=5

pone.0133734.g004: Bi-plot of stable isotope composition of detritus and adult Aedes aegypti (AE), A. albopictus (AA), and Culex quinquefasciatus (CX) across detritus ratios (animal:plant).Values are means ± SE from three replicates (except AE 1:1 and CX 0:10 which each had only one sample). Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
Mentions: Stable isotopes values showed significant variation among species and detritus ratio, as well as their interaction; other effects were not significant (Table 1). For the detritus by ratio interaction, SCC’s were large and negative for δ15N and large and positive for δ13C suggesting both were important for multivariate effects. Within species, adults were generally more enriched in δ15N when grown either on animal detritus alone (2:0) or a 1:1 ratio of animal and plant detritus compared to the 2:10 ratio or plant only environments (Fig 4). Aedes were generally more enriched in δ15N compared to Culex. Specifically, Aedes grown in animal-only or plant only environments had higher values compared to Culex, with no differences among species in the 1:1 and 2:10 ratio (Fig 4). For δ13C, values for adults were highest in the 2:0 and 1:1 ratios, intermediate in the 2:10 ratio, and lowest in the 0:10 ratio for all species (Fig 4). The lowest values for δ13C and δ15N were found in the leaf-only environments for all species. Values of δ15N for pure crickets were generally higher compared to all species and detritus combinations except when larvae were grown in animal detritus alone (Fig 4).

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.