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How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.


Survivorship (mean ± SE of percentage surviving) of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus across animal and leaf detritus ratios.Letters represent Tukey-post Hoc test results. Means sharing same letters are not significantly different. Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
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pone.0133734.g003: Survivorship (mean ± SE of percentage surviving) of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus across animal and leaf detritus ratios.Letters represent Tukey-post Hoc test results. Means sharing same letters are not significantly different. Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.

Mentions: Survival differed significantly among species (F2, 71 = 11.41, P < 0.001), detritus ratio (F3, 71 = 23.69, P <0.001), and species-detritus ratio interaction (F6, 71 = 19.67, P < 0.001). Among species, C. quinquefasciatus had the highest survival in the animal-only treatment level, but was significantly lower in the leaf-only level, with mixtures producing intermediate survival compared to Aedes. Within species, survival of C. quinquefasciatus generally declined with decreasing animal detritus across ratios, with the highest survival in animal-only (2:0), the lowest survival in the leaf-only (0:10), with others intermediate (Fig 3). For Aedes, survival was similar across detritus ratios, although A. albopictus generally had higher survival than A. aegypti especially in high animal and leaf ratio (2:10) (Fig 3).


How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Survivorship (mean ± SE of percentage surviving) of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus across animal and leaf detritus ratios.Letters represent Tukey-post Hoc test results. Means sharing same letters are not significantly different. Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526359&req=5

pone.0133734.g003: Survivorship (mean ± SE of percentage surviving) of Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus and Culex quinquefasciatus across animal and leaf detritus ratios.Letters represent Tukey-post Hoc test results. Means sharing same letters are not significantly different. Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
Mentions: Survival differed significantly among species (F2, 71 = 11.41, P < 0.001), detritus ratio (F3, 71 = 23.69, P <0.001), and species-detritus ratio interaction (F6, 71 = 19.67, P < 0.001). Among species, C. quinquefasciatus had the highest survival in the animal-only treatment level, but was significantly lower in the leaf-only level, with mixtures producing intermediate survival compared to Aedes. Within species, survival of C. quinquefasciatus generally declined with decreasing animal detritus across ratios, with the highest survival in animal-only (2:0), the lowest survival in the leaf-only (0:10), with others intermediate (Fig 3). For Aedes, survival was similar across detritus ratios, although A. albopictus generally had higher survival than A. aegypti especially in high animal and leaf ratio (2:10) (Fig 3).

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.