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How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.


Mass (mean ± SE) for male and female (a) Aedes aegypti, (b) Aedes albopictus and (c) Culex quinquefasciatus, across detritus ratios (animal:leaf).Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
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pone.0133734.g002: Mass (mean ± SE) for male and female (a) Aedes aegypti, (b) Aedes albopictus and (c) Culex quinquefasciatus, across detritus ratios (animal:leaf).Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.

Mentions: Male and female mass also differed across detritus ratios, with mosquitoes reared with some animal detritus having higher mass than leaf-only containers (Fig 2). Specifically, in the leaf-only containers (0:10), males and females had the lowest mass for all three species (Fig 2). However, adult mass was significantly higher in males and females from containers with combinations of animal and leaf detritus (i.e., 1:1, 2:10) (Fig 2). Within species, the response of adult mass to detritus ratios differed significantly between sexes. In A. aegypti, female mass was highest in the high animal-leaf ratio (2:10) whereas male mass was highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0) (Fig 2A). Conversely, female mass was highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0), for A. albopictus and C. quinquefasciatus (Fig 2B and 2C). Male mass was also highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0) for A. albopictus, but in C. quinquefasciatus the highest male mass was from the high animal-leaf ratio (2:10).


How Diverse Detrital Environments Influence Nutrient Stoichiometry between Males and Females of the Co-Occurring Container Mosquitoes Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus.

Yee DA, Kaufman MG, Ezeakacha NF - PLoS ONE (2015)

Mass (mean ± SE) for male and female (a) Aedes aegypti, (b) Aedes albopictus and (c) Culex quinquefasciatus, across detritus ratios (animal:leaf).Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526359&req=5

pone.0133734.g002: Mass (mean ± SE) for male and female (a) Aedes aegypti, (b) Aedes albopictus and (c) Culex quinquefasciatus, across detritus ratios (animal:leaf).Detritus ratios are expressed in units, where one unit = 0.10 g.
Mentions: Male and female mass also differed across detritus ratios, with mosquitoes reared with some animal detritus having higher mass than leaf-only containers (Fig 2). Specifically, in the leaf-only containers (0:10), males and females had the lowest mass for all three species (Fig 2). However, adult mass was significantly higher in males and females from containers with combinations of animal and leaf detritus (i.e., 1:1, 2:10) (Fig 2). Within species, the response of adult mass to detritus ratios differed significantly between sexes. In A. aegypti, female mass was highest in the high animal-leaf ratio (2:10) whereas male mass was highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0) (Fig 2A). Conversely, female mass was highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0), for A. albopictus and C. quinquefasciatus (Fig 2B and 2C). Male mass was also highest in the animal-only ratio (2:0) for A. albopictus, but in C. quinquefasciatus the highest male mass was from the high animal-leaf ratio (2:10).

Bottom Line: All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus.There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females.These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biological Sciences, University of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, Mississippi, United States of America.

ABSTRACT
Allocation patterns of carbon and nitrogen in animals are influenced by food quality and quantity, as well as by inherent metabolic and physiological constraints within organisms. Whole body stoichiometry also may vary between the sexes who differ in development rates and reproductive allocation patterns. In aquatic containers, such as tree holes and tires, detrital inputs, which vary in amounts of carbon and nitrogen, form the basis of the mosquito-dominated food web. Differences in development times and mass between male and female mosquitoes may be the result of different reproductive constraints, which could also influence patterns of nutrient allocation. We examined development time, survival, and adult mass for males and females of three co-occurring species, Aedes albopictus, Ae. aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus, across environments with different ratios of animal and leaf detritus. We quantified the contribution of detritus to biomass using stable isotope analysis and measured tissue carbon and nitrogen concentrations among species and between the sexes. Development times were shorter and adults were heavier for Aedes in animal versus leaf-only environments, whereas Culex development times were invariant across detritus types. Aedes displayed similar survival across detritus types whereas C. quinquefasciatus showed decreased survival with increasing leaf detritus. All species had lower values of 15N and 13C in leaf-only detritus compared to animal, however, Aedes generally had lower tissue nitrogen compared to C. quinquefasciatus. There were no differences in the C:N ratio between male and female Aedes, however, Aedes were different than C. quinquefasciatus adults, with male C. quinquefasciatus significantly higher than females. Culex quinquefasciatus was homeostatic across detrital environments. These results allow us to hypothesize an underlying stoichiometric explanation for the variation in performance of different container species under similar detrital environments, and if supported may assist in explaining the production of vector populations in nature.

No MeSH data available.