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Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation with guided ultrasound waves.

Macione J, Long D, Nesbitt S, Wentzell S, Yokota H, Pandit V, Kotha S - J Ther Ultrasound (2015)

Bottom Line: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells.In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034).The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ultrasound induces mechanical vibration and heat, causing differentiation and proliferation in osteoblasts. All known in vitro evaluations of ultrasound are, however, performed with longitudinal ultrasound waves. We addressed a question: Do other forms of ultrasound waves, such as guided waves (longitudinal and guided flexural) transduced at a remote location, enhance differentiation of osteoblast cells?

Methods: In this study, we employed guided Lamb waves that were induced in a borosilicate glass slide (cortical bone mimic). An average energy of 10-30 mW/cm(2) for 20 min per day was applied to MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells, which were placed 30-75 mm distant from the transducer.

Results: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells. In particular, guided waves elevated mRNA expression levels of bone formation-related genes such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and bone sialoprotein on days 8 and 16. In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034). The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

Conclusion: We demonstrate herein that ultrasound in a form of guided Lamb waves is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and it may enable the stimulation of osteoblasts in vivo over a distance from the site of ultrasound application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

a A 1kHz drive signal with 20 % duty cycle plotted with the hydrophone recording from the chamber slide on the borosilicate plate. The asterisk indicates that the S0 and A0 modes are mixed since each transducer pulse will create both modes which have different SOS. b The first arrival can be used to compute the SOS in order to verify the presence of Lamb waves. In this case, over 75 mm, a SOS of 4900 m/s is determined which corresponds to the lowest order symmetrical Lamb mode (S0)
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Fig3: a A 1kHz drive signal with 20 % duty cycle plotted with the hydrophone recording from the chamber slide on the borosilicate plate. The asterisk indicates that the S0 and A0 modes are mixed since each transducer pulse will create both modes which have different SOS. b The first arrival can be used to compute the SOS in order to verify the presence of Lamb waves. In this case, over 75 mm, a SOS of 4900 m/s is determined which corresponds to the lowest order symmetrical Lamb mode (S0)

Mentions: The presence of the guided waves as well as power of the leaky waves was validated by speed of sound measurements. A hydrophone was placed into a well filled with water. This signal, along with the start of the 1 kHz pulse was recorded by a 400-MHz data acquisition device (DR200 with PX14400, Signatec, Newport Beach, CA, USA). The first wave to arrive has a SOS of approximately 4800 m/s with the second group(s) at 2200 m/s, with some signals arriving later due to reflection (R) from the back of the glass plate (Fig. 3a). The first group of waves are denoted S0*, which indicates that it starts with the faster S0 waves but afterward becomes a combination of both modes. In the same manner, the slowest waves at the end of each pulsing cycle are denoted A0*. The waves between the start of A0* and end of S0* are a combination/superposition of both modes.Fig. 3


Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation with guided ultrasound waves.

Macione J, Long D, Nesbitt S, Wentzell S, Yokota H, Pandit V, Kotha S - J Ther Ultrasound (2015)

a A 1kHz drive signal with 20 % duty cycle plotted with the hydrophone recording from the chamber slide on the borosilicate plate. The asterisk indicates that the S0 and A0 modes are mixed since each transducer pulse will create both modes which have different SOS. b The first arrival can be used to compute the SOS in order to verify the presence of Lamb waves. In this case, over 75 mm, a SOS of 4900 m/s is determined which corresponds to the lowest order symmetrical Lamb mode (S0)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526286&req=5

Fig3: a A 1kHz drive signal with 20 % duty cycle plotted with the hydrophone recording from the chamber slide on the borosilicate plate. The asterisk indicates that the S0 and A0 modes are mixed since each transducer pulse will create both modes which have different SOS. b The first arrival can be used to compute the SOS in order to verify the presence of Lamb waves. In this case, over 75 mm, a SOS of 4900 m/s is determined which corresponds to the lowest order symmetrical Lamb mode (S0)
Mentions: The presence of the guided waves as well as power of the leaky waves was validated by speed of sound measurements. A hydrophone was placed into a well filled with water. This signal, along with the start of the 1 kHz pulse was recorded by a 400-MHz data acquisition device (DR200 with PX14400, Signatec, Newport Beach, CA, USA). The first wave to arrive has a SOS of approximately 4800 m/s with the second group(s) at 2200 m/s, with some signals arriving later due to reflection (R) from the back of the glass plate (Fig. 3a). The first group of waves are denoted S0*, which indicates that it starts with the faster S0 waves but afterward becomes a combination of both modes. In the same manner, the slowest waves at the end of each pulsing cycle are denoted A0*. The waves between the start of A0* and end of S0* are a combination/superposition of both modes.Fig. 3

Bottom Line: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells.In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034).The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ultrasound induces mechanical vibration and heat, causing differentiation and proliferation in osteoblasts. All known in vitro evaluations of ultrasound are, however, performed with longitudinal ultrasound waves. We addressed a question: Do other forms of ultrasound waves, such as guided waves (longitudinal and guided flexural) transduced at a remote location, enhance differentiation of osteoblast cells?

Methods: In this study, we employed guided Lamb waves that were induced in a borosilicate glass slide (cortical bone mimic). An average energy of 10-30 mW/cm(2) for 20 min per day was applied to MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells, which were placed 30-75 mm distant from the transducer.

Results: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells. In particular, guided waves elevated mRNA expression levels of bone formation-related genes such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and bone sialoprotein on days 8 and 16. In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034). The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

Conclusion: We demonstrate herein that ultrasound in a form of guided Lamb waves is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and it may enable the stimulation of osteoblasts in vivo over a distance from the site of ultrasound application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus