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Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation with guided ultrasound waves.

Macione J, Long D, Nesbitt S, Wentzell S, Yokota H, Pandit V, Kotha S - J Ther Ultrasound (2015)

Bottom Line: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells.In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034).The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ultrasound induces mechanical vibration and heat, causing differentiation and proliferation in osteoblasts. All known in vitro evaluations of ultrasound are, however, performed with longitudinal ultrasound waves. We addressed a question: Do other forms of ultrasound waves, such as guided waves (longitudinal and guided flexural) transduced at a remote location, enhance differentiation of osteoblast cells?

Methods: In this study, we employed guided Lamb waves that were induced in a borosilicate glass slide (cortical bone mimic). An average energy of 10-30 mW/cm(2) for 20 min per day was applied to MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells, which were placed 30-75 mm distant from the transducer.

Results: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells. In particular, guided waves elevated mRNA expression levels of bone formation-related genes such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and bone sialoprotein on days 8 and 16. In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034). The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

Conclusion: We demonstrate herein that ultrasound in a form of guided Lamb waves is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and it may enable the stimulation of osteoblasts in vivo over a distance from the site of ultrasound application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Lamb’s equations allow dispersion curves to be calculated which predict the speed of sound and modes which can be induced as a function that is the product of frequency and cortical thickness
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Fig1: Lamb’s equations allow dispersion curves to be calculated which predict the speed of sound and modes which can be induced as a function that is the product of frequency and cortical thickness

Mentions: The velocity of the different types of guided waves is dependent on the properties of the bone which include the thickness and longitudinal and transverse speed of sound. In order to compare the properties of flexural guided waves in glass and bone, Lamb’s equations were solved without fluid/tissue loading conditions using numerical methods on formulas with known constants from Dodd et al. [4] with methods from Rose [23] (Fig. 1). The phase velocity dispersion curve of the two lowest order antisymmetric and symmetric modes (S0, S1, A0, A1) for bone and borasilicate glass is shown in Fig. 1. In both dispersion curves, at a frequency*diameter (diameter of the cortical thickness) product of 1.2 MHz mm, there are two possible modes, the first-order antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0).Fig. 1


Stimulation of osteoblast differentiation with guided ultrasound waves.

Macione J, Long D, Nesbitt S, Wentzell S, Yokota H, Pandit V, Kotha S - J Ther Ultrasound (2015)

Lamb’s equations allow dispersion curves to be calculated which predict the speed of sound and modes which can be induced as a function that is the product of frequency and cortical thickness
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526286&req=5

Fig1: Lamb’s equations allow dispersion curves to be calculated which predict the speed of sound and modes which can be induced as a function that is the product of frequency and cortical thickness
Mentions: The velocity of the different types of guided waves is dependent on the properties of the bone which include the thickness and longitudinal and transverse speed of sound. In order to compare the properties of flexural guided waves in glass and bone, Lamb’s equations were solved without fluid/tissue loading conditions using numerical methods on formulas with known constants from Dodd et al. [4] with methods from Rose [23] (Fig. 1). The phase velocity dispersion curve of the two lowest order antisymmetric and symmetric modes (S0, S1, A0, A1) for bone and borasilicate glass is shown in Fig. 1. In both dispersion curves, at a frequency*diameter (diameter of the cortical thickness) product of 1.2 MHz mm, there are two possible modes, the first-order antisymmetric (A0) and symmetric (S0).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells.In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034).The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Biomedical Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 USA.

ABSTRACT

Background: Ultrasound induces mechanical vibration and heat, causing differentiation and proliferation in osteoblasts. All known in vitro evaluations of ultrasound are, however, performed with longitudinal ultrasound waves. We addressed a question: Do other forms of ultrasound waves, such as guided waves (longitudinal and guided flexural) transduced at a remote location, enhance differentiation of osteoblast cells?

Methods: In this study, we employed guided Lamb waves that were induced in a borosilicate glass slide (cortical bone mimic). An average energy of 10-30 mW/cm(2) for 20 min per day was applied to MC3T3 osteoblast-like cells, which were placed 30-75 mm distant from the transducer.

Results: The result revealed that guided waves significantly stimulated the differentiation and mineralization of MC3T3 cells. In particular, guided waves elevated mRNA expression levels of bone formation-related genes such as alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin, osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and bone sialoprotein on days 8 and 16. In addition, the amount of mineralization found via Alizarin red staining was increased by 157 % (p = 0.034). The amount of mineralization was found to be independent of distance from the transducer (p = 0.967).

Conclusion: We demonstrate herein that ultrasound in a form of guided Lamb waves is capable of inducing osteoblast differentiation in vitro, and it may enable the stimulation of osteoblasts in vivo over a distance from the site of ultrasound application.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus