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Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system.

Tawakoli PN, Sauer B, Becker K, Buchalla W, Attin T - BMC Oral Health (2015)

Bottom Line: Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %).CFU data confirmed the graduations between the groups.Cleaning of interproximal regions achieved better success with an oral irrigator as compared to the use of a sonic toothbrush. (350/350 words).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinic of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, University of Zurich, Center of Dental Medicine, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland. nina.tawakoli@zzm.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the potential of biofilm removal in interproximal tooth regions using intervallic cleaning with an oral irrigator or a sonic toothbrush.

Methods: Three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans (OMZ 918), Streptococcus oralis SK 248 (OMZ 60), Actinomyces naeslundii (OMZ 745)) were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 3 days in culture media. Every 24 h, specimens were incubated for 15 min in resazurin solution (i.e., culture medium and 10 % v/v alamarBlue®) to measure the metabolic activity with a fluorescence spectrophotometer in relative fluorescence units (rfu) at baseline. Then, specimens were fixed in interproximal holding devices and underwent treatment with an oral irrigator (WF; Waterpik® Sensonic WP-100E), an active sonic toothbrush (WPa), or an inactive sonic toothbrush (WPi; Waterpik® Sensonic SR-3000E) for 10 s (n = 18/group). Untreated biofilms served as controls (CO). After treatment, bacterial activity was re-measured, and specimens were re-grown in fresh medium for 24 h until next cleaning procedure. Altogether, cleaning was repeated in intervals of three treatment days (d1, d2, d3). After d3, SEM images were taken (n = 8) and CFU was measured (n = 3). Metabolic activity was analyzed for each disc separately, rfu values were averaged for d1 to compare initial biofilm stability, and ratios of baseline and post-treatment values were compared. Results were analyzed using ANOVA with the post-hoc Scheffé test, or Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Mann-Whitney test.

Results: Median baseline rfu-values of d1 resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %). SEM images of untreated specimens (CO) and specimens treated with the sonic toothbrush (WPa and WPi) showed huge amounts of biofilm, while oral irrigator-treated specimens (WF) revealed barely any bacteria. CFU data confirmed the graduations between the groups.

Conclusions: Cleaning of interproximal regions achieved better success with an oral irrigator as compared to the use of a sonic toothbrush. (350/350 words).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Boxplots of residual bacteria after d3 in ln CFU/ml (n = 3 per group). Two specimens of the CO-group revealed uncountable plates (>10^11). The median CFU (inner horizontal line) resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). WF = oral irrigator; WPa = sonic toothbrush, active; WPi = sonic toothbrush, inactive; CO = Control
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Fig4: Boxplots of residual bacteria after d3 in ln CFU/ml (n = 3 per group). Two specimens of the CO-group revealed uncountable plates (>10^11). The median CFU (inner horizontal line) resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). WF = oral irrigator; WPa = sonic toothbrush, active; WPi = sonic toothbrush, inactive; CO = Control

Mentions: Median baseline rfu-values of d1 (all groups) resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Baseline rfu-values of d2 (pre-treatment rfu) showed higher metabolic activity than d1, irrespective of the treatment group (mean ± SD, WF: 12045 ± 4414, WPa: 11832 ± 4331, WPi: 10600 ± 3362, CO: 10508 ± 3153). Baseline rfu-values of d3 revealed reduced metabolic activity compared to d1 and d2 (mean ± SD, WF: 5864 ± 3974, WPa: 6768 ± 3753, WPi: 6531 ± 4490, CO: 6878 ± 4093; Table 1). Post-treatment rfu-values were related to baseline rfu-values to calculate the residual metabolic activity in percentage. Significantly highest reduction in metabolic activity with regard to baseline was shown for the WF-group (oral irrigator) for 10 s for all treatment cycles (d1: 17.9 %, d2: 36.8 % and d3: 17.2 %). The WPa-group (active sonic toothbrush) showed significantly reduced metabolic activity on d1, whereas no significant reduction was measured on treatment cycle d2 and d3 (d1: 58.8 %, d2: 85.2 %, d3: 79.6 %). Specimens treated with the inactive sonic toothbrush (Wpi) and untreated specimens (CO) showed no significant reduction in biofilm activity at all (d1: WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %; Fig. 2). Scanning electron microscopic images of the WF-group revealed almost biofilm-free surfaces with residual bacteria and partially shorn-off matrix on the outer areas (Fig. 3 a and b). Images of the WPa-, WPi- and CO-group showed huge amounts of biofilm with peaks of bacterial islands and aggregates (Fig. 3). Median CFU data resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). Two specimens of the CO-group were uncountable (>10^11; Fig. 4).Table 1


Interproximal biofilm removal by intervallic use of a sonic toothbrush compared to an oral irrigation system.

Tawakoli PN, Sauer B, Becker K, Buchalla W, Attin T - BMC Oral Health (2015)

Boxplots of residual bacteria after d3 in ln CFU/ml (n = 3 per group). Two specimens of the CO-group revealed uncountable plates (>10^11). The median CFU (inner horizontal line) resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). WF = oral irrigator; WPa = sonic toothbrush, active; WPi = sonic toothbrush, inactive; CO = Control
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526281&req=5

Fig4: Boxplots of residual bacteria after d3 in ln CFU/ml (n = 3 per group). Two specimens of the CO-group revealed uncountable plates (>10^11). The median CFU (inner horizontal line) resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). WF = oral irrigator; WPa = sonic toothbrush, active; WPi = sonic toothbrush, inactive; CO = Control
Mentions: Median baseline rfu-values of d1 (all groups) resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Baseline rfu-values of d2 (pre-treatment rfu) showed higher metabolic activity than d1, irrespective of the treatment group (mean ± SD, WF: 12045 ± 4414, WPa: 11832 ± 4331, WPi: 10600 ± 3362, CO: 10508 ± 3153). Baseline rfu-values of d3 revealed reduced metabolic activity compared to d1 and d2 (mean ± SD, WF: 5864 ± 3974, WPa: 6768 ± 3753, WPi: 6531 ± 4490, CO: 6878 ± 4093; Table 1). Post-treatment rfu-values were related to baseline rfu-values to calculate the residual metabolic activity in percentage. Significantly highest reduction in metabolic activity with regard to baseline was shown for the WF-group (oral irrigator) for 10 s for all treatment cycles (d1: 17.9 %, d2: 36.8 % and d3: 17.2 %). The WPa-group (active sonic toothbrush) showed significantly reduced metabolic activity on d1, whereas no significant reduction was measured on treatment cycle d2 and d3 (d1: 58.8 %, d2: 85.2 %, d3: 79.6 %). Specimens treated with the inactive sonic toothbrush (Wpi) and untreated specimens (CO) showed no significant reduction in biofilm activity at all (d1: WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %; Fig. 2). Scanning electron microscopic images of the WF-group revealed almost biofilm-free surfaces with residual bacteria and partially shorn-off matrix on the outer areas (Fig. 3 a and b). Images of the WPa-, WPi- and CO-group showed huge amounts of biofilm with peaks of bacterial islands and aggregates (Fig. 3). Median CFU data resulted in 1.0 × 10^6 (WF), 2.2 × 10^9 (WPa), 1.1 × 10^11 (WPi) and 1.8 × 10^11 (CO). Two specimens of the CO-group were uncountable (>10^11; Fig. 4).Table 1

Bottom Line: Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %).CFU data confirmed the graduations between the groups.Cleaning of interproximal regions achieved better success with an oral irrigator as compared to the use of a sonic toothbrush. (350/350 words).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Clinic of Preventive Dentistry, Periodontology and Cariology, University of Zurich, Center of Dental Medicine, 8032, Zurich, Switzerland. nina.tawakoli@zzm.uzh.ch.

ABSTRACT

Background: The purpose of this in-vitro study was to investigate the potential of biofilm removal in interproximal tooth regions using intervallic cleaning with an oral irrigator or a sonic toothbrush.

Methods: Three-species biofilms (Streptococcus mutans (OMZ 918), Streptococcus oralis SK 248 (OMZ 60), Actinomyces naeslundii (OMZ 745)) were grown on hydroxyapatite discs for 3 days in culture media. Every 24 h, specimens were incubated for 15 min in resazurin solution (i.e., culture medium and 10 % v/v alamarBlue®) to measure the metabolic activity with a fluorescence spectrophotometer in relative fluorescence units (rfu) at baseline. Then, specimens were fixed in interproximal holding devices and underwent treatment with an oral irrigator (WF; Waterpik® Sensonic WP-100E), an active sonic toothbrush (WPa), or an inactive sonic toothbrush (WPi; Waterpik® Sensonic SR-3000E) for 10 s (n = 18/group). Untreated biofilms served as controls (CO). After treatment, bacterial activity was re-measured, and specimens were re-grown in fresh medium for 24 h until next cleaning procedure. Altogether, cleaning was repeated in intervals of three treatment days (d1, d2, d3). After d3, SEM images were taken (n = 8) and CFU was measured (n = 3). Metabolic activity was analyzed for each disc separately, rfu values were averaged for d1 to compare initial biofilm stability, and ratios of baseline and post-treatment values were compared. Results were analyzed using ANOVA with the post-hoc Scheffé test, or Kruskal-Wallis with post-hoc Mann-Whitney test.

Results: Median baseline rfu-values of d1 resulted in 7821.8 rfu (interquartile range = 5114.5). Highest reduction in metabolic activity was recorded significantly for the oral irrigator used for 10 s (residual activity per day d1: WF 17.9 %, WPa 58.8 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 89.6 %; d2: WF 36.8 %, WPa 85.2 %, WPi 82.5 %, CO 90.0 %; d3: WF 17.2.%, WPa 79.6 %, WPi 96.3 %, CO 116.3 %). SEM images of untreated specimens (CO) and specimens treated with the sonic toothbrush (WPa and WPi) showed huge amounts of biofilm, while oral irrigator-treated specimens (WF) revealed barely any bacteria. CFU data confirmed the graduations between the groups.

Conclusions: Cleaning of interproximal regions achieved better success with an oral irrigator as compared to the use of a sonic toothbrush. (350/350 words).

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus