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When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean absolute asynchrony profiles for baseline and VO/AF– conditions. The solid line in each graph is the mean absolute asynchrony profile for all participants in the piano group (for Satie and Schytte) or violin group (for Mendelssohn) and corresponds to the left y-axis. The dotted lines are the timing curves for the corresponding stimulus performances, and correspond to the right y-axis in each plot. Vertical lines in the Satie and Mendelssohn graphs indicate restart NOI. In the Schytte, the lines at beats 35, 51, and 75 indicate restarts, the shaded areas between beats 43 and 50 and 119 and 121 indicate ritardando passages, and the shaded areas between beats 59 and 65 and 67 and 73 indicate secondo lead passages. Plots for the Schytte have been rescaled onto log axes so that the full range of asynchronies can be seen in detail.
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fig4-1029864915570355: Mean absolute asynchrony profiles for baseline and VO/AF– conditions. The solid line in each graph is the mean absolute asynchrony profile for all participants in the piano group (for Satie and Schytte) or violin group (for Mendelssohn) and corresponds to the left y-axis. The dotted lines are the timing curves for the corresponding stimulus performances, and correspond to the right y-axis in each plot. Vertical lines in the Satie and Mendelssohn graphs indicate restart NOI. In the Schytte, the lines at beats 35, 51, and 75 indicate restarts, the shaded areas between beats 43 and 50 and 119 and 121 indicate ritardando passages, and the shaded areas between beats 59 and 65 and 67 and 73 indicate secondo lead passages. Plots for the Schytte have been rescaled onto log axes so that the full range of asynchronies can be seen in detail.

Mentions: Differences in mean absolute asynchronies between baseline and VO/AF– conditions and between NOI and non-NOI can be seen in more detail in Figure 4. For each piece, mean profiles are shown for the baseline condition when the maximum amount of audiovisual information was available, and for the VO/AF– condition when the least amount of audiovisual information was available. These profiles were constructed by averaging individual absolute asynchronies profiles across all participants within a stimulus group. Mean profiles are shown alongside a timing curve for the corresponding stimulus. Timing curves comprise the series of interonset intervals (IOIs) between each quarter note in recorded piano or violin primo performances. IOIs were interpolated wherever notes in the primo melody did not fall on the quarter beat (e.g., half notes in the Satie were subdivided into two equal quarters, corresponding to two points on the timing curve). For the Satie and Mendelssohn in particular—as confirmed with the post-tests detailed above—mean absolute asynchrony tends to peak at phrase boundaries during the baseline condition. In contrast, asynchrony tends to improve at phrase boundaries and worsen within phrases during the VO/AF– condition.


When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Mean absolute asynchrony profiles for baseline and VO/AF– conditions. The solid line in each graph is the mean absolute asynchrony profile for all participants in the piano group (for Satie and Schytte) or violin group (for Mendelssohn) and corresponds to the left y-axis. The dotted lines are the timing curves for the corresponding stimulus performances, and correspond to the right y-axis in each plot. Vertical lines in the Satie and Mendelssohn graphs indicate restart NOI. In the Schytte, the lines at beats 35, 51, and 75 indicate restarts, the shaded areas between beats 43 and 50 and 119 and 121 indicate ritardando passages, and the shaded areas between beats 59 and 65 and 67 and 73 indicate secondo lead passages. Plots for the Schytte have been rescaled onto log axes so that the full range of asynchronies can be seen in detail.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526249&req=5

fig4-1029864915570355: Mean absolute asynchrony profiles for baseline and VO/AF– conditions. The solid line in each graph is the mean absolute asynchrony profile for all participants in the piano group (for Satie and Schytte) or violin group (for Mendelssohn) and corresponds to the left y-axis. The dotted lines are the timing curves for the corresponding stimulus performances, and correspond to the right y-axis in each plot. Vertical lines in the Satie and Mendelssohn graphs indicate restart NOI. In the Schytte, the lines at beats 35, 51, and 75 indicate restarts, the shaded areas between beats 43 and 50 and 119 and 121 indicate ritardando passages, and the shaded areas between beats 59 and 65 and 67 and 73 indicate secondo lead passages. Plots for the Schytte have been rescaled onto log axes so that the full range of asynchronies can be seen in detail.
Mentions: Differences in mean absolute asynchronies between baseline and VO/AF– conditions and between NOI and non-NOI can be seen in more detail in Figure 4. For each piece, mean profiles are shown for the baseline condition when the maximum amount of audiovisual information was available, and for the VO/AF– condition when the least amount of audiovisual information was available. These profiles were constructed by averaging individual absolute asynchronies profiles across all participants within a stimulus group. Mean profiles are shown alongside a timing curve for the corresponding stimulus. Timing curves comprise the series of interonset intervals (IOIs) between each quarter note in recorded piano or violin primo performances. IOIs were interpolated wherever notes in the primo melody did not fall on the quarter beat (e.g., half notes in the Satie were subdivided into two equal quarters, corresponding to two points on the timing curve). For the Satie and Mendelssohn in particular—as confirmed with the post-tests detailed above—mean absolute asynchrony tends to peak at phrase boundaries during the baseline condition. In contrast, asynchrony tends to improve at phrase boundaries and worsen within phrases during the VO/AF– condition.

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus