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When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Mean absolute asynchronies at NOI across conditions. “NonNOI” refers to all notes of the piece not included in one of the other categories, “first” refers to the first note or chord of the piece, “restart” refers to phrase restarts following a pause or held note, “SL” refers to secondo lead passages, “rit” refers to ritardando passages, and “final” refers to the final note or chord of the piece. Error lines indicate standard error.
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fig3-1029864915570355: Mean absolute asynchronies at NOI across conditions. “NonNOI” refers to all notes of the piece not included in one of the other categories, “first” refers to the first note or chord of the piece, “restart” refers to phrase restarts following a pause or held note, “SL” refers to secondo lead passages, “rit” refers to ritardando passages, and “final” refers to the final note or chord of the piece. Error lines indicate standard error.

Mentions: LME was run for each piece using performance condition, primo group, NOI, and the interactions between them as fixed effects variables, subjects nested within condition and NOI as the random effects variable, and mean absolute asynchronies per NOI category as the dependent variable (results in Table 2). There was no main effect of group, but significant main effects of condition and NOI for all pieces. A significant interaction between condition and NOI was also found for all pieces, while the interaction between group and NOI was only significant for the Satie. Neither the interaction between group and condition nor the interaction between group, condition, and NOI was significant for any of the pieces. Figure 3 shows the mean absolute asynchrony achieved across each NOI category, for each piece, by each primo group, under the different experimental conditions.


When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Mean absolute asynchronies at NOI across conditions. “NonNOI” refers to all notes of the piece not included in one of the other categories, “first” refers to the first note or chord of the piece, “restart” refers to phrase restarts following a pause or held note, “SL” refers to secondo lead passages, “rit” refers to ritardando passages, and “final” refers to the final note or chord of the piece. Error lines indicate standard error.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526249&req=5

fig3-1029864915570355: Mean absolute asynchronies at NOI across conditions. “NonNOI” refers to all notes of the piece not included in one of the other categories, “first” refers to the first note or chord of the piece, “restart” refers to phrase restarts following a pause or held note, “SL” refers to secondo lead passages, “rit” refers to ritardando passages, and “final” refers to the final note or chord of the piece. Error lines indicate standard error.
Mentions: LME was run for each piece using performance condition, primo group, NOI, and the interactions between them as fixed effects variables, subjects nested within condition and NOI as the random effects variable, and mean absolute asynchronies per NOI category as the dependent variable (results in Table 2). There was no main effect of group, but significant main effects of condition and NOI for all pieces. A significant interaction between condition and NOI was also found for all pieces, while the interaction between group and NOI was only significant for the Satie. Neither the interaction between group and condition nor the interaction between group, condition, and NOI was significant for any of the pieces. Figure 3 shows the mean absolute asynchrony achieved across each NOI category, for each piece, by each primo group, under the different experimental conditions.

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus