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When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Sample frames from pianist and violinist videos. For both instruments, participants were able to see primos’ upper body movements and hand/finger movements. The small square in the upper right corner of the images flashed black and white at 400 ms intervals throughout the duration of each performance, so that precision in audiovisual display could be monitored. This square was covered during the experiment so as not to distract participants.
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fig1-1029864915570355: Sample frames from pianist and violinist videos. For both instruments, participants were able to see primos’ upper body movements and hand/finger movements. The small square in the upper right corner of the images flashed black and white at 400 ms intervals throughout the duration of each performance, so that precision in audiovisual display could be monitored. This square was covered during the experiment so as not to distract participants.

Mentions: The stimulus set comprised one piano and one violin performance of each piece, plus one clarinet performance of each piece to be used during practice trials. Sample frames from a pianist performance and a violinist performance are shown in Figure 1. Audio-video recordings were imported into Final Cut Pro (FCP) and synched according to their timecodes (which had been aligned at recording using an Ambient Clockit Lanc Logger ALL 601). Selected performances were then exported as MOV files and converted to AVI (XviD codex; 25 frames/second) with Wondershare Converter. The audio track for each video was exported separately from FCP as a WAV file (sampling rate 44.1 kHz).


When they listen and when they watch: Pianists' use of nonverbal audio and visual cues during duet performance.

Bishop L, Goebl W - Music Sci (2015)

Sample frames from pianist and violinist videos. For both instruments, participants were able to see primos’ upper body movements and hand/finger movements. The small square in the upper right corner of the images flashed black and white at 400 ms intervals throughout the duration of each performance, so that precision in audiovisual display could be monitored. This square was covered during the experiment so as not to distract participants.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2 - License 3
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526249&req=5

fig1-1029864915570355: Sample frames from pianist and violinist videos. For both instruments, participants were able to see primos’ upper body movements and hand/finger movements. The small square in the upper right corner of the images flashed black and white at 400 ms intervals throughout the duration of each performance, so that precision in audiovisual display could be monitored. This square was covered during the experiment so as not to distract participants.
Mentions: The stimulus set comprised one piano and one violin performance of each piece, plus one clarinet performance of each piece to be used during practice trials. Sample frames from a pianist performance and a violinist performance are shown in Figure 1. Audio-video recordings were imported into Final Cut Pro (FCP) and synched according to their timecodes (which had been aligned at recording using an Ambient Clockit Lanc Logger ALL 601). Selected performances were then exported as MOV files and converted to AVI (XviD codex; 25 frames/second) with Wondershare Converter. The audio track for each video was exported separately from FCP as a WAV file (sampling rate 44.1 kHz).

Bottom Line: Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available.Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces.Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Austrian Research Institute for Artificial Intelligence (OFAI), Austria.

ABSTRACT

Nonverbal auditory and visual communication helps ensemble musicians predict each other's intentions and coordinate their actions. When structural characteristics of the music make predicting co-performers' intentions difficult (e.g., following long pauses or during ritardandi), reliance on incoming auditory and visual signals may change. This study tested whether attention to visual cues during piano-piano and piano-violin duet performance increases in such situations. Pianists performed the secondo part to three duets, synchronizing with recordings of violinists or pianists playing the primo parts. Secondos' access to incoming audio and visual signals and to their own auditory feedback was manipulated. Synchronization was most successful when primo audio was available, deteriorating when primo audio was removed and only cues from primo visual signals were available. Visual cues were used effectively following long pauses in the music, however, even in the absence of primo audio. Synchronization was unaffected by the removal of secondos' own auditory feedback. Differences were observed in how successfully piano-piano and piano-violin duos synchronized, but these effects of instrument pairing were not consistent across pieces. Pianists' success at synchronizing with violinists and other pianists is likely moderated by piece characteristics and individual differences in the clarity of cueing gestures used.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus