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Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the thalamus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in the senescent (2.7 ± 0.12) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the thalamus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (0.11 ± 0.11). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise 0.7 ± 0.44 (a, b). 48 h MI induced increased number of reactive astrocytes (3.6 ± 0.19) as compared to the sedentary group without MI (2.25 ± 0.08). Exercise significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes in MI animals (1.5 ± 0.08) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Four animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
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fig4: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the thalamus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in the senescent (2.7 ± 0.12) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the thalamus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (0.11 ± 0.11). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise 0.7 ± 0.44 (a, b). 48 h MI induced increased number of reactive astrocytes (3.6 ± 0.19) as compared to the sedentary group without MI (2.25 ± 0.08). Exercise significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes in MI animals (1.5 ± 0.08) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Four animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.

Mentions: The MI induction did not change the number of the total or activated microglia cells in the thalamus as compared with control. However, the number of dystrophic microglia dramatically increased in MI animals 2 days after surgery. Exercise trained animals showed a significantly attenuated number of dystrophic microglia induced by MI by more than 50%. Interestingly, the exercise erased per se the number of activated microglia in sedentary rats (Figures 4(a) and 4(b)). The total numbers of astrocytes counted in the thalamus of the different treatment groups were similar. However, MI induced an increase in the number of hypertrophic GFAP-positive cells that were significantly reduced in the trained mice. Moreover, the exercise training abolished the number of hypertrophic astrocytes in sedentary rats (Figures 4(c) and 4(d)).


Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the thalamus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in the senescent (2.7 ± 0.12) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the thalamus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (0.11 ± 0.11). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise 0.7 ± 0.44 (a, b). 48 h MI induced increased number of reactive astrocytes (3.6 ± 0.19) as compared to the sedentary group without MI (2.25 ± 0.08). Exercise significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes in MI animals (1.5 ± 0.08) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Four animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526216&req=5

fig4: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the thalamus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in the senescent (2.7 ± 0.12) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the thalamus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (0.11 ± 0.11). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise 0.7 ± 0.44 (a, b). 48 h MI induced increased number of reactive astrocytes (3.6 ± 0.19) as compared to the sedentary group without MI (2.25 ± 0.08). Exercise significantly reduced the number of reactive astrocytes in MI animals (1.5 ± 0.08) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Four animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
Mentions: The MI induction did not change the number of the total or activated microglia cells in the thalamus as compared with control. However, the number of dystrophic microglia dramatically increased in MI animals 2 days after surgery. Exercise trained animals showed a significantly attenuated number of dystrophic microglia induced by MI by more than 50%. Interestingly, the exercise erased per se the number of activated microglia in sedentary rats (Figures 4(a) and 4(b)). The total numbers of astrocytes counted in the thalamus of the different treatment groups were similar. However, MI induced an increase in the number of hypertrophic GFAP-positive cells that were significantly reduced in the trained mice. Moreover, the exercise training abolished the number of hypertrophic astrocytes in sedentary rats (Figures 4(c) and 4(d)).

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus