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Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the hippocampus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic 2.6 ± 0.05 and senescent 1.4 ± 0.03 (dystrophic-like) microglia in the hippocampus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.80 ± 0.19 and 0.11 ± 0.19). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.4 ± 0.04 and 0.47 ± 0.1) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total or reactive astrocyte number in the hippocampus (5.2 ± 0.26 and 1.74 ± 0.07) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
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fig3: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the hippocampus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic 2.6 ± 0.05 and senescent 1.4 ± 0.03 (dystrophic-like) microglia in the hippocampus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.80 ± 0.19 and 0.11 ± 0.19). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.4 ± 0.04 and 0.47 ± 0.1) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total or reactive astrocyte number in the hippocampus (5.2 ± 0.26 and 1.74 ± 0.07) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.

Mentions: Hippocampus. We observed a significant increase of total, activated, and dystrophic microglia cells in the hippocampus of MI rats. The exercise counteracted the microglia activation and reduced the number of dystrophic cells, without affecting the total cells number in the same area. Moreover, the exercise reduced per se the number of activated microglia as compared with sedentary animals (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)). No changes in astrocytes morphology were observed (Figures 3(c) and 3(d)).


Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the hippocampus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic 2.6 ± 0.05 and senescent 1.4 ± 0.03 (dystrophic-like) microglia in the hippocampus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.80 ± 0.19 and 0.11 ± 0.19). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.4 ± 0.04 and 0.47 ± 0.1) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total or reactive astrocyte number in the hippocampus (5.2 ± 0.26 and 1.74 ± 0.07) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig3: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the hippocampus. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic 2.6 ± 0.05 and senescent 1.4 ± 0.03 (dystrophic-like) microglia in the hippocampus as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.80 ± 0.19 and 0.11 ± 0.19). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.4 ± 0.04 and 0.47 ± 0.1) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total or reactive astrocyte number in the hippocampus (5.2 ± 0.26 and 1.74 ± 0.07) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
Mentions: Hippocampus. We observed a significant increase of total, activated, and dystrophic microglia cells in the hippocampus of MI rats. The exercise counteracted the microglia activation and reduced the number of dystrophic cells, without affecting the total cells number in the same area. Moreover, the exercise reduced per se the number of activated microglia as compared with sedentary animals (Figures 3(a) and 3(b)). No changes in astrocytes morphology were observed (Figures 3(c) and 3(d)).

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus