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Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the prefrontal cortex. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic (2.20 ± 0.32) and senescent (1.97 ± 0.2) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.29 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.12). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.16 ± 0.19 and 1.13 ± 0.07) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total (5.88 0.27) or reactive (2.36 0.05) astrocyte number in the prefrontal cortex, whereas exercise alone enhanced the resting/hypertrophic astrocyte ratio (7.25 ± 0.09 and 1 ± 0.12) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
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fig2: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the prefrontal cortex. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic (2.20 ± 0.32) and senescent (1.97 ± 0.2) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.29 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.12). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.16 ± 0.19 and 1.13 ± 0.07) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total (5.88 0.27) or reactive (2.36 0.05) astrocyte number in the prefrontal cortex, whereas exercise alone enhanced the resting/hypertrophic astrocyte ratio (7.25 ± 0.09 and 1 ± 0.12) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.

Mentions: MI procedure did not change the number of both total Iba-1 positive cells in the cortex. However, MI animals showed a significant increase of the number of activated as well as dystrophic microglia cells in the same area. These effects were significantly prevented by applying the exercise training protocol (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). No changes were observed in astrocytes following MI surgery. Interestingly, the exercise alone exhibited significantly effects on cells morphological changes, as compared with sedentary animals. In particular, it reduced the number of activated microglia cells and modulated the number of astrocytes, by increasing the total number of GFAP-positive cells, and reduced the number of hypertrophic cells (Figures 2(c) and 2(d)).


Effect of Prolonged Moderate Exercise on the Changes of Nonneuronal Cells in Early Myocardial Infarction.

Rinaldi B, Guida F, Furiano A, Donniacuo M, Luongo L, Gritti G, Urbanek K, Messina G, Maione S, Rossi F, de Novellis V - Neural Plast. (2015)

Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the prefrontal cortex. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic (2.20 ± 0.32) and senescent (1.97 ± 0.2) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.29 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.12). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.16 ± 0.19 and 1.13 ± 0.07) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total (5.88 0.27) or reactive (2.36 0.05) astrocyte number in the prefrontal cortex, whereas exercise alone enhanced the resting/hypertrophic astrocyte ratio (7.25 ± 0.09 and 1 ± 0.12) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526216&req=5

fig2: Effect of prolonged exercise on MI induced microglia and astrocyte morphological changes in the prefrontal cortex. 48 h MI induced significant changes in hypertrophic (2.20 ± 0.32) and senescent (1.97 ± 0.2) (dystrophic-like) microglia in the prefrontal cortex as compared to the sedentary group without MI (1.29 ± 0.02 and 0.19 ± 0.12). Both phenotypes were significantly reduced by the prolonged exercise (1.16 ± 0.19 and 1.13 ± 0.07) (a, b). 48 h MI did not modify the total (5.88 0.27) or reactive (2.36 0.05) astrocyte number in the prefrontal cortex, whereas exercise alone enhanced the resting/hypertrophic astrocyte ratio (7.25 ± 0.09 and 1 ± 0.12) (c, d). Data are presented as mean ± SEM. ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test was used for statistical analysis. Three animals were used for each experimental group. ∗P < 0.05, ∗∗P < 0.01, and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 versus sedentary group; ▪P < 0.05, ▪▪P < 0.01, and ▪▪▪P < 0.001 versus sedentary group with MI. Scale bars 100 and 25 μm for panoramic and inset image, respectively.
Mentions: MI procedure did not change the number of both total Iba-1 positive cells in the cortex. However, MI animals showed a significant increase of the number of activated as well as dystrophic microglia cells in the same area. These effects were significantly prevented by applying the exercise training protocol (Figures 2(a) and 2(b)). No changes were observed in astrocytes following MI surgery. Interestingly, the exercise alone exhibited significantly effects on cells morphological changes, as compared with sedentary animals. In particular, it reduced the number of activated microglia cells and modulated the number of astrocytes, by increasing the total number of GFAP-positive cells, and reduced the number of hypertrophic cells (Figures 2(c) and 2(d)).

Bottom Line: In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach.We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation.Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Department of Experimental Medicine, Division of Pharmacology, The Second University of Naples, Via Costantinopoli 16, 80138 Naples, Italy.

ABSTRACT
Myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death in developed countries and it is characterized by several associated symptomatologies and poor quality of life. Recent data showed a possible interaction between infarction and brain inflammation and activity. Previous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of exercise training on deterioration in cardiac function after MI. In this study we analyzed in sedentary and trained rats the microglia and astrocytes 48 hours after MI in PVN, thalamus, prefrontal cortex, and hippocampus through immunofluorescence approach. We found significant changes in specific microglia phenotypes in the brain areas analyzed together with astrocytes activation. Prolonged exercise normalized these morphological changes of microglia and astrocytes in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus but not in the PVN. Our data suggest that there is an early brain reaction to myocardial infarction induction, involving nonneuronal cells, that is attenuated by the prolonged exercise.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus