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TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Regression analysis of the management complexity index as a function of the risk index calculated as the scores of the first principal component of PCAs (R2 = 0.435, P < 0.00). BA = Barranca del Aguacate, CA = Cañada del Agua, RO = Real de Otzumatlán, RP = Río de Parras, and PR = Pino Real. Mescal producers above and close to the dashed line are those with good management practices since their responses are adequate according to risk index. Those below the line indicate producers more vulnerable since their management strategies are not good enough than expected according to the risk representing their practices
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Fig4: Regression analysis of the management complexity index as a function of the risk index calculated as the scores of the first principal component of PCAs (R2 = 0.435, P < 0.00). BA = Barranca del Aguacate, CA = Cañada del Agua, RO = Real de Otzumatlán, RP = Río de Parras, and PR = Pino Real. Mescal producers above and close to the dashed line are those with good management practices since their responses are adequate according to risk index. Those below the line indicate producers more vulnerable since their management strategies are not good enough than expected according to the risk representing their practices

Mentions: The CCA indicates that variation in the form of agave management is 60.54 % explained by the risk variables. According to ANOVA, a highly significant influence was identified in the following variables: the demand that their mescal has in markets and the implementation or not of harmful practices in agave management, followed by a significant influence of partnership associated to the practices of mescal production, the productivity and knowledge transmission (Table 10, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5).Table 10


TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Regression analysis of the management complexity index as a function of the risk index calculated as the scores of the first principal component of PCAs (R2 = 0.435, P < 0.00). BA = Barranca del Aguacate, CA = Cañada del Agua, RO = Real de Otzumatlán, RP = Río de Parras, and PR = Pino Real. Mescal producers above and close to the dashed line are those with good management practices since their responses are adequate according to risk index. Those below the line indicate producers more vulnerable since their management strategies are not good enough than expected according to the risk representing their practices
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526173&req=5

Fig4: Regression analysis of the management complexity index as a function of the risk index calculated as the scores of the first principal component of PCAs (R2 = 0.435, P < 0.00). BA = Barranca del Aguacate, CA = Cañada del Agua, RO = Real de Otzumatlán, RP = Río de Parras, and PR = Pino Real. Mescal producers above and close to the dashed line are those with good management practices since their responses are adequate according to risk index. Those below the line indicate producers more vulnerable since their management strategies are not good enough than expected according to the risk representing their practices
Mentions: The CCA indicates that variation in the form of agave management is 60.54 % explained by the risk variables. According to ANOVA, a highly significant influence was identified in the following variables: the demand that their mescal has in markets and the implementation or not of harmful practices in agave management, followed by a significant influence of partnership associated to the practices of mescal production, the productivity and knowledge transmission (Table 10, Fig. 4 and Fig. 5).Table 10

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus