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TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Documented use categories of Agave inaequidens by the agave handlers and percentage of mention in the 41 interviews conducted in the study area
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Fig2: Documented use categories of Agave inaequidens by the agave handlers and percentage of mention in the 41 interviews conducted in the study area

Mentions: We documented 16 use categories and 34 specific uses of A. inaequidens in the study area (Table 5, Fig. 2). The following are the use categories recorded in order of importance according to their percentage of mention by people: Mescal production (76.1 %), food (64.2 %), medicine (38 %), seasoning and insulating (21.4 %), veterinary (19 %), fermented sap or “pulque” production (11.9 %), live fences, fodder (7.1 %), materials for construction and fiber (4.7 %), growing of young agaves for commercialization, hunting decoy, barrier for preventing soil erosion, nests for parakeet and bird pets, and ornamental purposes (2.3 %).Table 5


TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Documented use categories of Agave inaequidens by the agave handlers and percentage of mention in the 41 interviews conducted in the study area
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526173&req=5

Fig2: Documented use categories of Agave inaequidens by the agave handlers and percentage of mention in the 41 interviews conducted in the study area
Mentions: We documented 16 use categories and 34 specific uses of A. inaequidens in the study area (Table 5, Fig. 2). The following are the use categories recorded in order of importance according to their percentage of mention by people: Mescal production (76.1 %), food (64.2 %), medicine (38 %), seasoning and insulating (21.4 %), veterinary (19 %), fermented sap or “pulque” production (11.9 %), live fences, fodder (7.1 %), materials for construction and fiber (4.7 %), growing of young agaves for commercialization, hunting decoy, barrier for preventing soil erosion, nests for parakeet and bird pets, and ornamental purposes (2.3 %).Table 5

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus