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TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Study area. Location of communities and their municipalities: a The two localities of Barranca del Aguacate, Sahuayo, b (from left to right) Pino real, Charo, Cañada del Agua, Indaparapeo; Real de Otzumatlán and Río de Parras, Queréndaro, located in the Trans-volcanic Belt in the north of Michoacán
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Fig1: Study area. Location of communities and their municipalities: a The two localities of Barranca del Aguacate, Sahuayo, b (from left to right) Pino real, Charo, Cañada del Agua, Indaparapeo; Real de Otzumatlán and Río de Parras, Queréndaro, located in the Trans-volcanic Belt in the north of Michoacán

Mentions: We studied five communities at the north of the state of Michoacán, Mexico (Fig. 1). Four of them are famous for mescal production, and the fifth is a community not producing mescal but that makes use of A. inaequidens as food and for other purposes (Table 1). The environment in the communities studied is mainly temperate (annual mean temperature being 17.7 °C, annual precipitation averaging 734 mm), and the prevailing economy is based on agro-pastoral activities. These communities are located in the Trans-Mexican Neo-volcanic Belt, which is the natural distribution area of the agave species studied [4].Fig. 1


TEK, local perceptions of risk, and diversity of management practices of Agave inaequidens in Michoacán, Mexico.

Torres I, Blancas J, León A, Casas A - J Ethnobiol Ethnomed (2015)

Study area. Location of communities and their municipalities: a The two localities of Barranca del Aguacate, Sahuayo, b (from left to right) Pino real, Charo, Cañada del Agua, Indaparapeo; Real de Otzumatlán and Río de Parras, Queréndaro, located in the Trans-volcanic Belt in the north of Michoacán
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4526173&req=5

Fig1: Study area. Location of communities and their municipalities: a The two localities of Barranca del Aguacate, Sahuayo, b (from left to right) Pino real, Charo, Cañada del Agua, Indaparapeo; Real de Otzumatlán and Río de Parras, Queréndaro, located in the Trans-volcanic Belt in the north of Michoacán
Mentions: We studied five communities at the north of the state of Michoacán, Mexico (Fig. 1). Four of them are famous for mescal production, and the fifth is a community not producing mescal but that makes use of A. inaequidens as food and for other purposes (Table 1). The environment in the communities studied is mainly temperate (annual mean temperature being 17.7 °C, annual precipitation averaging 734 mm), and the prevailing economy is based on agro-pastoral activities. These communities are located in the Trans-Mexican Neo-volcanic Belt, which is the natural distribution area of the agave species studied [4].Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests.In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad (IIES), Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.

ABSTRACT

Background: Mescal production is the main economic activity associated to agaves in Mexico, which involves 53 species mostly harvested from forests. The increasing mescal demand has influenced risk in both agave populations and mescal production, but other social and ecological factors also intervene. We hypothesized that the greater the risk the greater the complexity of management responses; otherwise, the greater the probability of populations' depletion. We analysed this hypothesis by examining the diversity of risk conditions and management practices of Agave inaequidens in the state of Michoacán, in central-western Mexico.

Methods: We studied five communities of Michoacán, documenting through 41 semi-structured interviews the use forms, risk perception, number of agaves annually extracted, and the management practices. Using a matrix with social-ecological and technological data analyzed by PCA, we evaluated similarities of management contexts. A data matrix with information on risk of agave populations, and other about management practices were analysed also through CCA and PCA. The scores of the first principal components were considered as indexes of risk and management complexity, respectively. A regression analysis of these indexes evaluated their relation.

Results: We recorded 34 different uses of A. inaequidens, the most important being mescal production (mentioned by 76.1 % of people interviewed). Nearly 12.5 % of people practice only gathering, but others mentioned the following practices: Selective let standing of agaves for seed production (20 %); in situ transplanting of saplings; seed propagation in nurseries and saplings transplanting to forest (10 %); suckers transplanting (7.5 %); seed dispersal in forests; banning (5 %); enhancing of agave growth by removing tree canopies (2.5 %); transplanting from the wild to live fences (45 %); intensive plantations (35 %). The highest vulnerability of agave populations was identified in communities where risk is not counteracted by management. In two communities we identified the highest risk (annual extraction from 4,353 to 6,557 agaves), but different actions counteracting such risk.

Conclusions: Interchange of knowledge and management experiences developed by handlers is crucial for the regional conservation, recovering, and sustainable management of A. inaequidens populations.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus