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Fish remains as a source to reconstruct long-term changes of fish communities in the Austrian and Hungarian Danube.

Galik A, Haidvogl G, Bartosiewicz L, Guti G, Jungwirth M - Aquat Sci (2015)

Bottom Line: One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish.At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment.Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this paper is to investigate how archaeological fish remains and written historical records can contribute to the reconstruction of long-term developments of fish communities along the Austrian and Hungarian Danube. Although such approaches are sensitive to various factors, the chronological subdivision and relative quantification of proxy data demonstrate environmental and faunal changes from Prehistory onwards. Intensification of fisheries, decline of large specimens and massive exploitation of small and young fish point to increasing pressure along the chronological sequence towards Early Modern times. One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish. At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment. Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.

No MeSH data available.


Map with the Austrian (1–14) and Hungarian sites (a–s) along the Danube and tributaries (line drawing Galik). Data: 1 Pucher (1991); 2 Galik (2008); 3 Galik et al. (2011); 4 Galik (1998), Galik and Kunst (2000), Kunst and Galik (2000); 5–13 data for Vienna: Galik unpubl, Jandl and Mosser (2008), Mosser (2010); data for Carnuntum: Galik unpubl, Galik et al. (2009), Petznek (2012); 14 Galik unpubl, Kühtreiber (2005, 2006). a Bartosiewicz unpubl., b Bartosiewicz et al. (1994), c Bartosiewicz unpubl., d Bartosiewicz (1989), e Bökönyi (1974), f Bökönyi (1974), g Bökönyi (1974), h Takács unpubl, i Bökönyi (1974), j Bartosiewicz unpubl.; k Bartosiewicz (1995), l Bökönyi (1974), m Takács-Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., n, o Bartosiewicz (2003), Bökönyi (1963), Bökönyi (1958), Takács and Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., Bökönyi (1959), p, q Bökönyi (1974), Bökönyi (1959), r Bökönyi (1974), s Bökönyi (1959)
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Fig1: Map with the Austrian (1–14) and Hungarian sites (a–s) along the Danube and tributaries (line drawing Galik). Data: 1 Pucher (1991); 2 Galik (2008); 3 Galik et al. (2011); 4 Galik (1998), Galik and Kunst (2000), Kunst and Galik (2000); 5–13 data for Vienna: Galik unpubl, Jandl and Mosser (2008), Mosser (2010); data for Carnuntum: Galik unpubl, Galik et al. (2009), Petznek (2012); 14 Galik unpubl, Kühtreiber (2005, 2006). a Bartosiewicz unpubl., b Bartosiewicz et al. (1994), c Bartosiewicz unpubl., d Bartosiewicz (1989), e Bökönyi (1974), f Bökönyi (1974), g Bökönyi (1974), h Takács unpubl, i Bökönyi (1974), j Bartosiewicz unpubl.; k Bartosiewicz (1995), l Bökönyi (1974), m Takács-Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., n, o Bartosiewicz (2003), Bökönyi (1963), Bökönyi (1958), Takács and Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., Bökönyi (1959), p, q Bökönyi (1974), Bökönyi (1959), r Bökönyi (1974), s Bökönyi (1959)

Mentions: The archaeoichthyological material comes from sites along the Danube in Austria and Hungary. The Austrian river section is characterized by alpine influences in terms of velocity and temperature. Downstream of Bratislava and Györ the character shifts towards a lowland river, also reflected by a change from a dominance of rheophilic and eurytopic to more limnophilic cyprinids (Schiemer et al. 2004). The Austrian Roman, medieval and post medieval sites are concentrated in the Vienna Basin (Fig. 1: 5–13), which showed—prior to the channelization in the 19th century—the typical pattern of an anastomosing river system. This basin was inhabited by diverse fish communities comprising about 52 native species including the sturgeon species (Schiemer and Waidbacher 1998; Spindler 1997). Austrian fish data include archaeological sites at tributaries, among them a post-medieval cesspit in Salzburg near the Salzach River associated with a tavern (Fig. 1: 1). Ansfelden at the confluence of the Traun and Krems rivers documents a long history of settling activities starting in the Neolithic and terminating after early medieval times (Fig. 1: 2). A late medieval monastic latrine filling in St. Pölten is located close to the Traisen River (Fig. 1: 3). Another post-medieval site, the Carthusian monastery Mauerbach was situated at a brook of the same name; that brook was no doubt too small to sustain fish stocks large enough to supply a larger number of friars (Fig. 1: 4). Foundations of the medieval castle Dunkelstein near the Schwarza River, which discharges into the Leitha River and finally ends in the Danube, also revealed fish remains (Fig. 1: 14). In total, approximately 16,000 fish remains were recovered from the Austrian sites.Fig. 1


Fish remains as a source to reconstruct long-term changes of fish communities in the Austrian and Hungarian Danube.

Galik A, Haidvogl G, Bartosiewicz L, Guti G, Jungwirth M - Aquat Sci (2015)

Map with the Austrian (1–14) and Hungarian sites (a–s) along the Danube and tributaries (line drawing Galik). Data: 1 Pucher (1991); 2 Galik (2008); 3 Galik et al. (2011); 4 Galik (1998), Galik and Kunst (2000), Kunst and Galik (2000); 5–13 data for Vienna: Galik unpubl, Jandl and Mosser (2008), Mosser (2010); data for Carnuntum: Galik unpubl, Galik et al. (2009), Petznek (2012); 14 Galik unpubl, Kühtreiber (2005, 2006). a Bartosiewicz unpubl., b Bartosiewicz et al. (1994), c Bartosiewicz unpubl., d Bartosiewicz (1989), e Bökönyi (1974), f Bökönyi (1974), g Bökönyi (1974), h Takács unpubl, i Bökönyi (1974), j Bartosiewicz unpubl.; k Bartosiewicz (1995), l Bökönyi (1974), m Takács-Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., n, o Bartosiewicz (2003), Bökönyi (1963), Bökönyi (1958), Takács and Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., Bökönyi (1959), p, q Bökönyi (1974), Bökönyi (1959), r Bökönyi (1974), s Bökönyi (1959)
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525806&req=5

Fig1: Map with the Austrian (1–14) and Hungarian sites (a–s) along the Danube and tributaries (line drawing Galik). Data: 1 Pucher (1991); 2 Galik (2008); 3 Galik et al. (2011); 4 Galik (1998), Galik and Kunst (2000), Kunst and Galik (2000); 5–13 data for Vienna: Galik unpubl, Jandl and Mosser (2008), Mosser (2010); data for Carnuntum: Galik unpubl, Galik et al. (2009), Petznek (2012); 14 Galik unpubl, Kühtreiber (2005, 2006). a Bartosiewicz unpubl., b Bartosiewicz et al. (1994), c Bartosiewicz unpubl., d Bartosiewicz (1989), e Bökönyi (1974), f Bökönyi (1974), g Bökönyi (1974), h Takács unpubl, i Bökönyi (1974), j Bartosiewicz unpubl.; k Bartosiewicz (1995), l Bökönyi (1974), m Takács-Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., n, o Bartosiewicz (2003), Bökönyi (1963), Bökönyi (1958), Takács and Bartosiewicz unpubl., Takács unpubl., Bökönyi (1959), p, q Bökönyi (1974), Bökönyi (1959), r Bökönyi (1974), s Bökönyi (1959)
Mentions: The archaeoichthyological material comes from sites along the Danube in Austria and Hungary. The Austrian river section is characterized by alpine influences in terms of velocity and temperature. Downstream of Bratislava and Györ the character shifts towards a lowland river, also reflected by a change from a dominance of rheophilic and eurytopic to more limnophilic cyprinids (Schiemer et al. 2004). The Austrian Roman, medieval and post medieval sites are concentrated in the Vienna Basin (Fig. 1: 5–13), which showed—prior to the channelization in the 19th century—the typical pattern of an anastomosing river system. This basin was inhabited by diverse fish communities comprising about 52 native species including the sturgeon species (Schiemer and Waidbacher 1998; Spindler 1997). Austrian fish data include archaeological sites at tributaries, among them a post-medieval cesspit in Salzburg near the Salzach River associated with a tavern (Fig. 1: 1). Ansfelden at the confluence of the Traun and Krems rivers documents a long history of settling activities starting in the Neolithic and terminating after early medieval times (Fig. 1: 2). A late medieval monastic latrine filling in St. Pölten is located close to the Traisen River (Fig. 1: 3). Another post-medieval site, the Carthusian monastery Mauerbach was situated at a brook of the same name; that brook was no doubt too small to sustain fish stocks large enough to supply a larger number of friars (Fig. 1: 4). Foundations of the medieval castle Dunkelstein near the Schwarza River, which discharges into the Leitha River and finally ends in the Danube, also revealed fish remains (Fig. 1: 14). In total, approximately 16,000 fish remains were recovered from the Austrian sites.Fig. 1

Bottom Line: One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish.At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment.Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Institute of Anatomy, Histology and Embryology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.

ABSTRACT

The main objective of this paper is to investigate how archaeological fish remains and written historical records can contribute to the reconstruction of long-term developments of fish communities along the Austrian and Hungarian Danube. Although such approaches are sensitive to various factors, the chronological subdivision and relative quantification of proxy data demonstrate environmental and faunal changes from Prehistory onwards. Intensification of fisheries, decline of large specimens and massive exploitation of small and young fish point to increasing pressure along the chronological sequence towards Early Modern times. One result of this impact was the establishment of regulations and laws to protect such fish. At the same time, the rise of aquaculture and common carp cultivation can be viewed as another upshot of human impact on the Danube's environment. Finally, the massive import of salted marine fish reflects a compensation for the undersupply caused by overexploitation of the Danube fish fauna and points to the growing demand for fish as food in late medieval and Early Modern times.

No MeSH data available.