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Monodisperse colloidal gallium nanoparticles: synthesis, low temperature crystallization, surface plasmon resonance and Li-ion storage.

Yarema M, Wörle M, Rossell MD, Erni R, Caputo R, Protesescu L, Kravchyk KV, Dirin DN, Lienau K, von Rohr F, Schilling A, Nachtegaal M, Kovalenko MV - J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2014)

Bottom Line: The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140-145 and 240-250 K, respectively.We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions.We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g(-1), 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zürich , CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We report a facile colloidal synthesis of gallium (Ga) nanoparticles with the mean size tunable in the range of 12-46 nm and with excellent size distribution as small as 7-8%. When stored under ambient conditions, Ga nanoparticles remain stable for months due to the formation of native and passivating Ga-oxide layer (2-3 nm). The mechanism of Ga nanoparticles formation is elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and with molecular dynamics simulations. Size-dependent crystallization and melting of Ga nanoparticles in the temperature range of 98-298 K are studied with X-ray powder diffraction, specific heat measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140-145 and 240-250 K, respectively. We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g(-1), 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

An outlineof the synthesis of Ga NPs via thermal decompositionof Ga-alkylamides. Dioctylamine acts as a surfactant and also engagesinto partial or complete transamination of Ga2(NMe2)6, thus controlling the reaction kinetics. (A,B)Low- and high-resolution TEM images of 24.0 nm Ga NPs with narrowsize distribution of 7.4%.
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fig1: An outlineof the synthesis of Ga NPs via thermal decompositionof Ga-alkylamides. Dioctylamine acts as a surfactant and also engagesinto partial or complete transamination of Ga2(NMe2)6, thus controlling the reaction kinetics. (A,B)Low- and high-resolution TEM images of 24.0 nm Ga NPs with narrowsize distribution of 7.4%.

Mentions: In a typical synthesis of 24 nm Ga NPs (Figure 1), ODE (7 mL) was dried under vacuum at 110 °Cfor 1 h and then heated to 280 °C under Ar atmosphere. At 280°C, a solution containing Ga2(NMe2)6 (25 mg), dried DOA (1.13 mL), and dried ODE (4.87 mL) wasswiftly injected, leading to the fast temperature drop to ∼230°C. The solution turned from yellow to brown 40 s later, indicatingthe formation of colloidal Ga NPs. In 1 min, the reaction was terminatedby cooling to room temperature, and Ga NPs were isolated by a typicalsolvent–nonsolvent procedure. This injection-based synthesiscan be up-scaled by at least a factor of 4, without deteriorationof the size distribution (Figure S9).


Monodisperse colloidal gallium nanoparticles: synthesis, low temperature crystallization, surface plasmon resonance and Li-ion storage.

Yarema M, Wörle M, Rossell MD, Erni R, Caputo R, Protesescu L, Kravchyk KV, Dirin DN, Lienau K, von Rohr F, Schilling A, Nachtegaal M, Kovalenko MV - J. Am. Chem. Soc. (2014)

An outlineof the synthesis of Ga NPs via thermal decompositionof Ga-alkylamides. Dioctylamine acts as a surfactant and also engagesinto partial or complete transamination of Ga2(NMe2)6, thus controlling the reaction kinetics. (A,B)Low- and high-resolution TEM images of 24.0 nm Ga NPs with narrowsize distribution of 7.4%.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525770&req=5

fig1: An outlineof the synthesis of Ga NPs via thermal decompositionof Ga-alkylamides. Dioctylamine acts as a surfactant and also engagesinto partial or complete transamination of Ga2(NMe2)6, thus controlling the reaction kinetics. (A,B)Low- and high-resolution TEM images of 24.0 nm Ga NPs with narrowsize distribution of 7.4%.
Mentions: In a typical synthesis of 24 nm Ga NPs (Figure 1), ODE (7 mL) was dried under vacuum at 110 °Cfor 1 h and then heated to 280 °C under Ar atmosphere. At 280°C, a solution containing Ga2(NMe2)6 (25 mg), dried DOA (1.13 mL), and dried ODE (4.87 mL) wasswiftly injected, leading to the fast temperature drop to ∼230°C. The solution turned from yellow to brown 40 s later, indicatingthe formation of colloidal Ga NPs. In 1 min, the reaction was terminatedby cooling to room temperature, and Ga NPs were isolated by a typicalsolvent–nonsolvent procedure. This injection-based synthesiscan be up-scaled by at least a factor of 4, without deteriorationof the size distribution (Figure S9).

Bottom Line: The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140-145 and 240-250 K, respectively.We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions.We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g(-1), 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratory for Inorganic Chemistry, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, ETH Zürich , CH-8093 Zürich, Switzerland.

ABSTRACT
We report a facile colloidal synthesis of gallium (Ga) nanoparticles with the mean size tunable in the range of 12-46 nm and with excellent size distribution as small as 7-8%. When stored under ambient conditions, Ga nanoparticles remain stable for months due to the formation of native and passivating Ga-oxide layer (2-3 nm). The mechanism of Ga nanoparticles formation is elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and with molecular dynamics simulations. Size-dependent crystallization and melting of Ga nanoparticles in the temperature range of 98-298 K are studied with X-ray powder diffraction, specific heat measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140-145 and 240-250 K, respectively. We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g(-1), 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus