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Arum Palaestinum with isovanillin, linolenic acid and β-sitosterol inhibits prostate cancer spheroids and reduces the growth rate of prostate tumors in mice.

Cole C, Burgoyne T, Lee A, Stehno-Bittel L, Zaid G - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Bottom Line: Arum palaestinum is a plant commonly found in the Middle East that is ingested as an herbal remedy to fight cancer.However, no studies have examined the direct effect of the plant/plant extract on tumor growth in an animal model.Preliminary toxicity studies were conducted on rats using an up-down design, with no signs of toxic effect at the highest dose.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Likarda, LLC, 2002 W. 39th Ave, Kansas City, KS, 66103, USA. ccole@likarda.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arum palaestinum is a plant commonly found in the Middle East that is ingested as an herbal remedy to fight cancer. However, no studies have examined the direct effect of the plant/plant extract on tumor growth in an animal model.

Methods: Verified prostate cancer cells were plated as 3D spheroids to determine the effect of extract from boiled Arum Palaestinum Boiss roots. In addition, male NU/NU mice (8 weeks old) with xenograft tumors derived from the prostate cancer cell line were treated daily with 1000 mg/kg body weight gavage of the suspension GZ17. The tumor growth was measured repeatedly with calipers and the excised tumors were weighed at the termination of the 3 week study. Control mice (10 mice in each group) received vehicle in the same manner and volume.

Results: The number of live prostate cancer cells declined in a dose/dependent manner with a 24 h exposure to the extract at doses of 0.015 to 6.25 mg/mL. A fortified version of the extract (referred to as GZ17) that contained higher levels of isovanillin, linolenic acid and β-sitosterol had a stronger effect on the cell death rate, shifting the percentage of dead cells from 30 % to 55 % at the highest dose while the vehicle control had no effect on cell numbers. When GZ17 was applied to non-cancer tissue, in this case, human islets, there was no cell death at doses that were toxic to treated cancer cells. Preliminary toxicity studies were conducted on rats using an up-down design, with no signs of toxic effect at the highest dose. NU/NU mice with xenograft prostate tumors treated with GZ17 had a dramatic inhibition of tumor progression, while tumors in the control group grew steadily through the 3 weeks. The rate of tumor volume increase was 73 mm(3)/day for the vehicle group and 24 mm(3)/day for the GZ17 treated mice. While there was a trend towards lower excised tumor weight at study termination in the GZ17 treatment group, there was no statistical difference.

Conclusions: Fortified Arum palaestinum Boiss caused a reduction in live cells within prostate cancer spheroids and blocked tumor growth in xenografted prostate tumors in mice without signs of toxicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Prostate cancer spheroids respond to Arum paleastinum Boiss and the fortified GZ17. a Prostate cancer cells grown in 3D spheroids responded to Arum palaestinum Boiss and the fortified version, GZ17, in a dose dependent manner. GZ17 was more potent at inducing cell death compared to the plant extract with statistically lower cell numbers at 3.13 and 6.25 mg/ml. b Compared to the vehicle, which had no cell death effect, GZ17 was statistically more potent at inducing cell death. c The 3 fortifying components that when added to Arum palaestinum, create GZ17, were tested alone on prostate cells. The additives (open circles) had little effect on cell viability. *indicates p < 0.005; **indicates p < 0.001
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Fig1: Prostate cancer spheroids respond to Arum paleastinum Boiss and the fortified GZ17. a Prostate cancer cells grown in 3D spheroids responded to Arum palaestinum Boiss and the fortified version, GZ17, in a dose dependent manner. GZ17 was more potent at inducing cell death compared to the plant extract with statistically lower cell numbers at 3.13 and 6.25 mg/ml. b Compared to the vehicle, which had no cell death effect, GZ17 was statistically more potent at inducing cell death. c The 3 fortifying components that when added to Arum palaestinum, create GZ17, were tested alone on prostate cells. The additives (open circles) had little effect on cell viability. *indicates p < 0.005; **indicates p < 0.001

Mentions: Prostate cancer spheroids were exposed to increasing doses of Arum palaestinum Boiss extract or to the fortified version of the plant extract called GZ17. Both showed a dose-dependent increase in cell death at concentrations ranging from 0.015 to 6.25 mg/mL, but the GZ17 was slightly more potent at inducing cell death in the spheroids (Fig. 1a). IC50 values could not be calculated, as the maximal effect could not be reached with the highest concentration of the pure plant extract due to its precipitation at higher concentrations. For this reason, the extract was dried to obtain a solid form for reconstitution in water. The effect on prostate cells was more evident using the reconstituted version of GZ17 (Fig. 1b). It was compared to the vehicle control, which induced no cell death at the same concentrations. In contrast, the GZ17-treated plates lost 96 % of the cells at the highest GZ17 dose (6.25 mg/mL).Fig. 1


Arum Palaestinum with isovanillin, linolenic acid and β-sitosterol inhibits prostate cancer spheroids and reduces the growth rate of prostate tumors in mice.

Cole C, Burgoyne T, Lee A, Stehno-Bittel L, Zaid G - BMC Complement Altern Med (2015)

Prostate cancer spheroids respond to Arum paleastinum Boiss and the fortified GZ17. a Prostate cancer cells grown in 3D spheroids responded to Arum palaestinum Boiss and the fortified version, GZ17, in a dose dependent manner. GZ17 was more potent at inducing cell death compared to the plant extract with statistically lower cell numbers at 3.13 and 6.25 mg/ml. b Compared to the vehicle, which had no cell death effect, GZ17 was statistically more potent at inducing cell death. c The 3 fortifying components that when added to Arum palaestinum, create GZ17, were tested alone on prostate cells. The additives (open circles) had little effect on cell viability. *indicates p < 0.005; **indicates p < 0.001
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525741&req=5

Fig1: Prostate cancer spheroids respond to Arum paleastinum Boiss and the fortified GZ17. a Prostate cancer cells grown in 3D spheroids responded to Arum palaestinum Boiss and the fortified version, GZ17, in a dose dependent manner. GZ17 was more potent at inducing cell death compared to the plant extract with statistically lower cell numbers at 3.13 and 6.25 mg/ml. b Compared to the vehicle, which had no cell death effect, GZ17 was statistically more potent at inducing cell death. c The 3 fortifying components that when added to Arum palaestinum, create GZ17, were tested alone on prostate cells. The additives (open circles) had little effect on cell viability. *indicates p < 0.005; **indicates p < 0.001
Mentions: Prostate cancer spheroids were exposed to increasing doses of Arum palaestinum Boiss extract or to the fortified version of the plant extract called GZ17. Both showed a dose-dependent increase in cell death at concentrations ranging from 0.015 to 6.25 mg/mL, but the GZ17 was slightly more potent at inducing cell death in the spheroids (Fig. 1a). IC50 values could not be calculated, as the maximal effect could not be reached with the highest concentration of the pure plant extract due to its precipitation at higher concentrations. For this reason, the extract was dried to obtain a solid form for reconstitution in water. The effect on prostate cells was more evident using the reconstituted version of GZ17 (Fig. 1b). It was compared to the vehicle control, which induced no cell death at the same concentrations. In contrast, the GZ17-treated plates lost 96 % of the cells at the highest GZ17 dose (6.25 mg/mL).Fig. 1

Bottom Line: Arum palaestinum is a plant commonly found in the Middle East that is ingested as an herbal remedy to fight cancer.However, no studies have examined the direct effect of the plant/plant extract on tumor growth in an animal model.Preliminary toxicity studies were conducted on rats using an up-down design, with no signs of toxic effect at the highest dose.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Likarda, LLC, 2002 W. 39th Ave, Kansas City, KS, 66103, USA. ccole@likarda.com.

ABSTRACT

Background: Arum palaestinum is a plant commonly found in the Middle East that is ingested as an herbal remedy to fight cancer. However, no studies have examined the direct effect of the plant/plant extract on tumor growth in an animal model.

Methods: Verified prostate cancer cells were plated as 3D spheroids to determine the effect of extract from boiled Arum Palaestinum Boiss roots. In addition, male NU/NU mice (8 weeks old) with xenograft tumors derived from the prostate cancer cell line were treated daily with 1000 mg/kg body weight gavage of the suspension GZ17. The tumor growth was measured repeatedly with calipers and the excised tumors were weighed at the termination of the 3 week study. Control mice (10 mice in each group) received vehicle in the same manner and volume.

Results: The number of live prostate cancer cells declined in a dose/dependent manner with a 24 h exposure to the extract at doses of 0.015 to 6.25 mg/mL. A fortified version of the extract (referred to as GZ17) that contained higher levels of isovanillin, linolenic acid and β-sitosterol had a stronger effect on the cell death rate, shifting the percentage of dead cells from 30 % to 55 % at the highest dose while the vehicle control had no effect on cell numbers. When GZ17 was applied to non-cancer tissue, in this case, human islets, there was no cell death at doses that were toxic to treated cancer cells. Preliminary toxicity studies were conducted on rats using an up-down design, with no signs of toxic effect at the highest dose. NU/NU mice with xenograft prostate tumors treated with GZ17 had a dramatic inhibition of tumor progression, while tumors in the control group grew steadily through the 3 weeks. The rate of tumor volume increase was 73 mm(3)/day for the vehicle group and 24 mm(3)/day for the GZ17 treated mice. While there was a trend towards lower excised tumor weight at study termination in the GZ17 treatment group, there was no statistical difference.

Conclusions: Fortified Arum palaestinum Boiss caused a reduction in live cells within prostate cancer spheroids and blocked tumor growth in xenografted prostate tumors in mice without signs of toxicity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus