Limits...
Elevated body swing test after focal cerebral ischemia in rodents: methodological considerations.

Ingberg E, Gudjonsdottir J, Theodorsson E, Theodorsson A, Ström JO - BMC Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations.The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Diagnostics, Linköping University, Region Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden. edvin.ingberg@liu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elevated body swing test (EBST) is a behavioral test used to evaluate experimental stroke in rodents. The basic idea is that when the animal is suspended vertically by the tail, it will swing its head laterally to the left or right depending on lesion side. In a previous study from our lab using the EBST after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), rats swung contralateral to the infarct day 1 post-MCAo, but ipsilateral day 3 post-MCAo. This shift was unexpected and prompted us to perform the present study. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to elucidate whether a similar shift had been noticed before, and if consensus existed regarding swing direction. Secondly, an experiment was conducted to systematically investigate the suggested behavior. Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.

Results: Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations. The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of adequate reporting of behavioral tests for lateralization and it is concluded that the EBST cannot be recommended as a test for motor asymmetry after MCAo in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

EBST performance (a, c, e) and infarct volumes including location of infarcts (b, d, f). There was a significant difference between the EBST curve for group Female 60 min (a) and Male 60 min (c) but not for the three male groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min and Male 90 min). None of the MCAo groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min, Male 90 min and Female 60 min) differed significantly in infarct volume of location of infarct (proportion of infarct in cortex). Asterisks indicate significant difference in proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline values of the group (p < 0.05). Mean ± SEM.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525734&req=5

Fig4: EBST performance (a, c, e) and infarct volumes including location of infarcts (b, d, f). There was a significant difference between the EBST curve for group Female 60 min (a) and Male 60 min (c) but not for the three male groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min and Male 90 min). None of the MCAo groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min, Male 90 min and Female 60 min) differed significantly in infarct volume of location of infarct (proportion of infarct in cortex). Asterisks indicate significant difference in proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline values of the group (p < 0.05). Mean ± SEM.

Mentions: When occurrence of shifting behavior was tested according to the definition (see “Methods”), a main effect of time on proportion of right-side swings was found in the groups Female 60 min [F(4, 28) = 8.63; p < 0.0005], Male 30 min [F(4, 36) = 4.01; p = 0.009] and Male 90 min [F(4, 32) = 5.74; p = 0.001], but not in groups Male 60 min [F(4, 36) = 1.69; p > 0.05], sham ICA [F(4, 32) = 0.22; p > 0.05] and sham CCA + ECA [F(4, 32) = 0.93; p > 0.05]. Post-hoc testing against baseline revealed for group Female 60 significantly lower values on days 2 (p = 0.008), 3 (p = 0.04) and 7 (p = 0.04) (Fig. 4a). Group Male 30 min had increased proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline on day 1 (p = 0.004), and group Male 90 min on day 1 (p = 0.02) and day 7 (p = 0.008) (Fig. 4c).Fig. 4


Elevated body swing test after focal cerebral ischemia in rodents: methodological considerations.

Ingberg E, Gudjonsdottir J, Theodorsson E, Theodorsson A, Ström JO - BMC Neurosci (2015)

EBST performance (a, c, e) and infarct volumes including location of infarcts (b, d, f). There was a significant difference between the EBST curve for group Female 60 min (a) and Male 60 min (c) but not for the three male groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min and Male 90 min). None of the MCAo groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min, Male 90 min and Female 60 min) differed significantly in infarct volume of location of infarct (proportion of infarct in cortex). Asterisks indicate significant difference in proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline values of the group (p < 0.05). Mean ± SEM.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525734&req=5

Fig4: EBST performance (a, c, e) and infarct volumes including location of infarcts (b, d, f). There was a significant difference between the EBST curve for group Female 60 min (a) and Male 60 min (c) but not for the three male groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min and Male 90 min). None of the MCAo groups (Male 30 min, Male 60 min, Male 90 min and Female 60 min) differed significantly in infarct volume of location of infarct (proportion of infarct in cortex). Asterisks indicate significant difference in proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline values of the group (p < 0.05). Mean ± SEM.
Mentions: When occurrence of shifting behavior was tested according to the definition (see “Methods”), a main effect of time on proportion of right-side swings was found in the groups Female 60 min [F(4, 28) = 8.63; p < 0.0005], Male 30 min [F(4, 36) = 4.01; p = 0.009] and Male 90 min [F(4, 32) = 5.74; p = 0.001], but not in groups Male 60 min [F(4, 36) = 1.69; p > 0.05], sham ICA [F(4, 32) = 0.22; p > 0.05] and sham CCA + ECA [F(4, 32) = 0.93; p > 0.05]. Post-hoc testing against baseline revealed for group Female 60 significantly lower values on days 2 (p = 0.008), 3 (p = 0.04) and 7 (p = 0.04) (Fig. 4a). Group Male 30 min had increased proportion of right-side swings compared to baseline on day 1 (p = 0.004), and group Male 90 min on day 1 (p = 0.02) and day 7 (p = 0.008) (Fig. 4c).Fig. 4

Bottom Line: Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations.The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Diagnostics, Linköping University, Region Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden. edvin.ingberg@liu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elevated body swing test (EBST) is a behavioral test used to evaluate experimental stroke in rodents. The basic idea is that when the animal is suspended vertically by the tail, it will swing its head laterally to the left or right depending on lesion side. In a previous study from our lab using the EBST after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), rats swung contralateral to the infarct day 1 post-MCAo, but ipsilateral day 3 post-MCAo. This shift was unexpected and prompted us to perform the present study. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to elucidate whether a similar shift had been noticed before, and if consensus existed regarding swing direction. Secondly, an experiment was conducted to systematically investigate the suggested behavior. Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.

Results: Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations. The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of adequate reporting of behavioral tests for lateralization and it is concluded that the EBST cannot be recommended as a test for motor asymmetry after MCAo in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus