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Elevated body swing test after focal cerebral ischemia in rodents: methodological considerations.

Ingberg E, Gudjonsdottir J, Theodorsson E, Theodorsson A, Ström JO - BMC Neurosci (2015)

Bottom Line: Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations.The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Diagnostics, Linköping University, Region Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden. edvin.ingberg@liu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elevated body swing test (EBST) is a behavioral test used to evaluate experimental stroke in rodents. The basic idea is that when the animal is suspended vertically by the tail, it will swing its head laterally to the left or right depending on lesion side. In a previous study from our lab using the EBST after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), rats swung contralateral to the infarct day 1 post-MCAo, but ipsilateral day 3 post-MCAo. This shift was unexpected and prompted us to perform the present study. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to elucidate whether a similar shift had been noticed before, and if consensus existed regarding swing direction. Secondly, an experiment was conducted to systematically investigate the suggested behavior. Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.

Results: Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations. The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of adequate reporting of behavioral tests for lateralization and it is concluded that the EBST cannot be recommended as a test for motor asymmetry after MCAo in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Flow chart of article inclusion for the systematic review. From the original Medline search and through reviewing the articles retrieved, together with the previous article from our lab [42], there were 33 articles. These were further analyzed with regard to main swing direction in the EBST after unilateral cerebral ischemia.
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Fig2: Flow chart of article inclusion for the systematic review. From the original Medline search and through reviewing the articles retrieved, together with the previous article from our lab [42], there were 33 articles. These were further analyzed with regard to main swing direction in the EBST after unilateral cerebral ischemia.

Mentions: Subsequently, in the included papers retrieved by the Medline search (n = 22), the descriptions of the EBST in the methods sections were searched for references. If criteria were met in these referred articles, they were also included (n = 10). From all the included papers (n = 33; Fig. 2), information regarding whether the stroked animals in the studies swung mainly towards the side contralateral or ipsilateral to the ischemic hemisphere, or if there was no biased swing activity, was extracted. If no statistical comparison had been performed, an explicit statement that the swing activity was biased towards the contralateral or the ipsilateral side was accepted. In cases where no information was provided regarding direction of the biased swing activity, the swing direction was labeled as “unclear”. One group showing biased swing activity was considered enough to label the paper as either contralateral, ipsilateral, unclear or with a shift over time, even though other groups in the same study might have presented without a side preference. Each paper was also scanned for indications of a shift of main swing directions, similar to what was previously observed in our lab (see “Background” and [42]). If a shift was found, the paper was categorized into “shift over time”.Fig. 2


Elevated body swing test after focal cerebral ischemia in rodents: methodological considerations.

Ingberg E, Gudjonsdottir J, Theodorsson E, Theodorsson A, Ström JO - BMC Neurosci (2015)

Flow chart of article inclusion for the systematic review. From the original Medline search and through reviewing the articles retrieved, together with the previous article from our lab [42], there were 33 articles. These were further analyzed with regard to main swing direction in the EBST after unilateral cerebral ischemia.
© Copyright Policy - OpenAccess
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License 1 - License 2
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525734&req=5

Fig2: Flow chart of article inclusion for the systematic review. From the original Medline search and through reviewing the articles retrieved, together with the previous article from our lab [42], there were 33 articles. These were further analyzed with regard to main swing direction in the EBST after unilateral cerebral ischemia.
Mentions: Subsequently, in the included papers retrieved by the Medline search (n = 22), the descriptions of the EBST in the methods sections were searched for references. If criteria were met in these referred articles, they were also included (n = 10). From all the included papers (n = 33; Fig. 2), information regarding whether the stroked animals in the studies swung mainly towards the side contralateral or ipsilateral to the ischemic hemisphere, or if there was no biased swing activity, was extracted. If no statistical comparison had been performed, an explicit statement that the swing activity was biased towards the contralateral or the ipsilateral side was accepted. In cases where no information was provided regarding direction of the biased swing activity, the swing direction was labeled as “unclear”. One group showing biased swing activity was considered enough to label the paper as either contralateral, ipsilateral, unclear or with a shift over time, even though other groups in the same study might have presented without a side preference. Each paper was also scanned for indications of a shift of main swing directions, similar to what was previously observed in our lab (see “Background” and [42]). If a shift was found, the paper was categorized into “shift over time”.Fig. 2

Bottom Line: Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations.The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Health Sciences, Center for Diagnostics, Linköping University, Region Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden. edvin.ingberg@liu.se.

ABSTRACT

Background: The elevated body swing test (EBST) is a behavioral test used to evaluate experimental stroke in rodents. The basic idea is that when the animal is suspended vertically by the tail, it will swing its head laterally to the left or right depending on lesion side. In a previous study from our lab using the EBST after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo), rats swung contralateral to the infarct day 1 post-MCAo, but ipsilateral day 3 post-MCAo. This shift was unexpected and prompted us to perform the present study. First, the literature was systematically reviewed to elucidate whether a similar shift had been noticed before, and if consensus existed regarding swing direction. Secondly, an experiment was conducted to systematically investigate the suggested behavior. Eighty-three adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to MCAo or sham surgery and the EBST was performed up to 7 days after the lesion.

Results: Both experimentally and through systematic literature review, the present study shows that the direction of biased swing activity in the EBST for rodents after cerebral ischemia can differ and even shift over time in some situations. The EBST curve for females was significantly different from that of males after the same occlusion time (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of adequate reporting of behavioral tests for lateralization and it is concluded that the EBST cannot be recommended as a test for motor asymmetry after MCAo in rats.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus