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Interpreting pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using micro-CT.

Anné J, Garwood RJ, Lowe T, Withers PJ, Manning PL - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth.Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes.Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

ABSTRACT
Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth. Unfortunately, most palaeopathological studies are confined to external morphological interpretations due to the destructive nature of traditional methods of study. This limits the degree of reliable diagnosis and interpretation possible. X-ray MicroTomography (micro-CT, XMT) provides a non-destructive means of analysing the internal three-dimensional structure of pathologies in both extant and extinct individuals, at higher resolutions than possible with medical scanners. In this study, we present external and internal descriptions of pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using XMT. This work demonstrates that the combination of external/internal diagnosis that X-ray microtomography facilitates is crucial when differentiating between pathological conditions. Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes. Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies. Micro-CT is an increasingly accessible tool, which will provide key insights for correctly interpreting vertebrate pathologies in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

T. rex (BHI 3033) cervical rib; photograph of the specimen in rostral-caudal view (A), XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), rostral-caudal (C) and transverse (D) views, and 3D rendering in medial-lateral view (E).Reactive bone is observed in some concentrated areas (red arrows). The high porosity consists of long canals running parallel to the long axis of the specimen (E in yellow). Scale bar is 5 mm.
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fig-3: T. rex (BHI 3033) cervical rib; photograph of the specimen in rostral-caudal view (A), XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), rostral-caudal (C) and transverse (D) views, and 3D rendering in medial-lateral view (E).Reactive bone is observed in some concentrated areas (red arrows). The high porosity consists of long canals running parallel to the long axis of the specimen (E in yellow). Scale bar is 5 mm.

Mentions: BHI 3033: The T. rex cervical vertebrae associated with this rib exhibit severe reactive bone growth, most likely due to a complication of healing after trauma, which caused two of the cervicals to become fused (Larson & Donnan, 2002; PL Larson, pers.comm., 2013). The complication derived from the vertebral injury appears to have spread to the cervical rib, giving it a frothy appearance, and in some areas it is enlarged (Fig. 3). The most likely cause is osteitis or osteomyelitis as a result of complications during healing.


Interpreting pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using micro-CT.

Anné J, Garwood RJ, Lowe T, Withers PJ, Manning PL - PeerJ (2015)

T. rex (BHI 3033) cervical rib; photograph of the specimen in rostral-caudal view (A), XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), rostral-caudal (C) and transverse (D) views, and 3D rendering in medial-lateral view (E).Reactive bone is observed in some concentrated areas (red arrows). The high porosity consists of long canals running parallel to the long axis of the specimen (E in yellow). Scale bar is 5 mm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525691&req=5

fig-3: T. rex (BHI 3033) cervical rib; photograph of the specimen in rostral-caudal view (A), XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), rostral-caudal (C) and transverse (D) views, and 3D rendering in medial-lateral view (E).Reactive bone is observed in some concentrated areas (red arrows). The high porosity consists of long canals running parallel to the long axis of the specimen (E in yellow). Scale bar is 5 mm.
Mentions: BHI 3033: The T. rex cervical vertebrae associated with this rib exhibit severe reactive bone growth, most likely due to a complication of healing after trauma, which caused two of the cervicals to become fused (Larson & Donnan, 2002; PL Larson, pers.comm., 2013). The complication derived from the vertebral injury appears to have spread to the cervical rib, giving it a frothy appearance, and in some areas it is enlarged (Fig. 3). The most likely cause is osteitis or osteomyelitis as a result of complications during healing.

Bottom Line: Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth.Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes.Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

ABSTRACT
Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth. Unfortunately, most palaeopathological studies are confined to external morphological interpretations due to the destructive nature of traditional methods of study. This limits the degree of reliable diagnosis and interpretation possible. X-ray MicroTomography (micro-CT, XMT) provides a non-destructive means of analysing the internal three-dimensional structure of pathologies in both extant and extinct individuals, at higher resolutions than possible with medical scanners. In this study, we present external and internal descriptions of pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using XMT. This work demonstrates that the combination of external/internal diagnosis that X-ray microtomography facilitates is crucial when differentiating between pathological conditions. Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes. Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies. Micro-CT is an increasingly accessible tool, which will provide key insights for correctly interpreting vertebrate pathologies in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus