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Interpreting pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using micro-CT.

Anné J, Garwood RJ, Lowe T, Withers PJ, Manning PL - PeerJ (2015)

Bottom Line: Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth.Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes.Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

ABSTRACT
Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth. Unfortunately, most palaeopathological studies are confined to external morphological interpretations due to the destructive nature of traditional methods of study. This limits the degree of reliable diagnosis and interpretation possible. X-ray MicroTomography (micro-CT, XMT) provides a non-destructive means of analysing the internal three-dimensional structure of pathologies in both extant and extinct individuals, at higher resolutions than possible with medical scanners. In this study, we present external and internal descriptions of pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using XMT. This work demonstrates that the combination of external/internal diagnosis that X-ray microtomography facilitates is crucial when differentiating between pathological conditions. Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes. Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies. Micro-CT is an increasingly accessible tool, which will provide key insights for correctly interpreting vertebrate pathologies in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

S. camelus (BHI 6241) cervical vertebra; photograph of the specimen in medial-lateral view (A) and XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), dorsal-ventral (C) and transverse (D) views.The affected zygapophysis shows large necrotic cavities (red arrows) surrounded by relatively dense reactive bone, which spreads both internally and externally to form osteophyte ‘hooks.’ Scale bar is 1 cm.
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fig-2: S. camelus (BHI 6241) cervical vertebra; photograph of the specimen in medial-lateral view (A) and XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), dorsal-ventral (C) and transverse (D) views.The affected zygapophysis shows large necrotic cavities (red arrows) surrounded by relatively dense reactive bone, which spreads both internally and externally to form osteophyte ‘hooks.’ Scale bar is 1 cm.

Mentions: BHI 6241: The outer appearance of the S. camelus cervical matches descriptions for early stages of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH). DISH is described (externally) as fused vertebrae with a ‘melted candle wax’ appearance, where fusion may be asymmetrical and the articulated surfaces appear unaffected (Fig. 2A; Rothschild & Martin, 2006; Waldron, 2009). However, DISH has not been found in avians. Newcastle disease is a common ailment of captive ratites resulting in the inability for the individual to lift their head (Stewart, 1994; Huchzermyer, 2002). However, this is a neurological disease and does not affect the bone. Alternative conditions that affect vertebrae in avians include arthritis, osteopetrosis (viral infection in avians) and vertebral osteomyelitis (bacterial or fungal) (Julian, 1998; Stalker et al., 2010; Doneley, 2011).


Interpreting pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using micro-CT.

Anné J, Garwood RJ, Lowe T, Withers PJ, Manning PL - PeerJ (2015)

S. camelus (BHI 6241) cervical vertebra; photograph of the specimen in medial-lateral view (A) and XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), dorsal-ventral (C) and transverse (D) views.The affected zygapophysis shows large necrotic cavities (red arrows) surrounded by relatively dense reactive bone, which spreads both internally and externally to form osteophyte ‘hooks.’ Scale bar is 1 cm.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525691&req=5

fig-2: S. camelus (BHI 6241) cervical vertebra; photograph of the specimen in medial-lateral view (A) and XMT slices in medial-lateral (B), dorsal-ventral (C) and transverse (D) views.The affected zygapophysis shows large necrotic cavities (red arrows) surrounded by relatively dense reactive bone, which spreads both internally and externally to form osteophyte ‘hooks.’ Scale bar is 1 cm.
Mentions: BHI 6241: The outer appearance of the S. camelus cervical matches descriptions for early stages of Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH). DISH is described (externally) as fused vertebrae with a ‘melted candle wax’ appearance, where fusion may be asymmetrical and the articulated surfaces appear unaffected (Fig. 2A; Rothschild & Martin, 2006; Waldron, 2009). However, DISH has not been found in avians. Newcastle disease is a common ailment of captive ratites resulting in the inability for the individual to lift their head (Stewart, 1994; Huchzermyer, 2002). However, this is a neurological disease and does not affect the bone. Alternative conditions that affect vertebrae in avians include arthritis, osteopetrosis (viral infection in avians) and vertebral osteomyelitis (bacterial or fungal) (Julian, 1998; Stalker et al., 2010; Doneley, 2011).

Bottom Line: Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth.Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes.Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies.

View Article: PubMed Central - HTML - PubMed

Affiliation: School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences, University of Manchester , Manchester , UK.

ABSTRACT
Palaeopathology offers unique insight to the healing strategies of extinct organisms, permitting questions concerning bone physiology to be answered in greater depth. Unfortunately, most palaeopathological studies are confined to external morphological interpretations due to the destructive nature of traditional methods of study. This limits the degree of reliable diagnosis and interpretation possible. X-ray MicroTomography (micro-CT, XMT) provides a non-destructive means of analysing the internal three-dimensional structure of pathologies in both extant and extinct individuals, at higher resolutions than possible with medical scanners. In this study, we present external and internal descriptions of pathologies in extant and extinct archosaurs using XMT. This work demonstrates that the combination of external/internal diagnosis that X-ray microtomography facilitates is crucial when differentiating between pathological conditions. Furthermore, we show that the use of comparative species, both through direct analysis and from the literature, provides key information for diagnosing between vertebrate groups in the typical pathological conditions and physiological processes. Micro-CT imaging, combined with comparative observations of extant species, provides more detailed and reliable interpretation of palaeopathologies. Micro-CT is an increasingly accessible tool, which will provide key insights for correctly interpreting vertebrate pathologies in the future.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus