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Toward the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction.

Mauroy B, Flaud P, Pelca D, Fausser C, Merckx J, Mitchell BR - Front Physiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions.Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs.Finally, we propose and tested two a dimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire J. A. Dieudonnée - UMR CNRS 7351, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis Nice, France.

ABSTRACT
Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical chest physiotherapy techniques. We show that for secretions to move, air flow has to be high enough to overcome secretion resistance to motion. Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions. However, pressures too high are efficient up to a point where airways compressions prevents air flow to increase any further. Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs. Also, some secretions might be pushed deeper into the lungs; this effect is stronger for high pressures and for mechanical chest physiotherapy. Finally, we propose and tested two a dimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

No MeSH data available.


Comfort number computed from model predictions for the different chest physiotherapy techniques mimicked in this study. The higher the comfort number, the larger are the stress in the lung tissues. The comfort number for normal ventilation is zero.
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Figure 13: Comfort number computed from model predictions for the different chest physiotherapy techniques mimicked in this study. The higher the comfort number, the larger are the stress in the lung tissues. The comfort number for normal ventilation is zero.

Mentions: On Figure 13, the comfort number for different idealized chest physiotherapy techniques studied in this paper are plotted. CC techniques with moderate static pressure are associated to high comfort numbers, mainly because the static pressure is applied constantly during the manipulation. FPT are associated to low comfort numbers, because they are applying low pressures on chest. Notice that comfort number is only related to the net compressive forces induced into the lung by the manipulations, comfort number is not able to measure the role the frequency of pressure application may play on the patient comfort.


Toward the modeling of mucus draining from human lung: role of airways deformation on air-mucus interaction.

Mauroy B, Flaud P, Pelca D, Fausser C, Merckx J, Mitchell BR - Front Physiol (2015)

Comfort number computed from model predictions for the different chest physiotherapy techniques mimicked in this study. The higher the comfort number, the larger are the stress in the lung tissues. The comfort number for normal ventilation is zero.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525672&req=5

Figure 13: Comfort number computed from model predictions for the different chest physiotherapy techniques mimicked in this study. The higher the comfort number, the larger are the stress in the lung tissues. The comfort number for normal ventilation is zero.
Mentions: On Figure 13, the comfort number for different idealized chest physiotherapy techniques studied in this paper are plotted. CC techniques with moderate static pressure are associated to high comfort numbers, mainly because the static pressure is applied constantly during the manipulation. FPT are associated to low comfort numbers, because they are applying low pressures on chest. Notice that comfort number is only related to the net compressive forces induced into the lung by the manipulations, comfort number is not able to measure the role the frequency of pressure application may play on the patient comfort.

Bottom Line: Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions.Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs.Finally, we propose and tested two a dimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Laboratoire J. A. Dieudonnée - UMR CNRS 7351, Université de Nice-Sophia Antipolis Nice, France.

ABSTRACT
Chest physiotherapy is an empirical technique used to help secretions to get out of the lung whenever stagnation occurs. Although commonly used, little is known about the inner mechanisms of chest physiotherapy and controversies about its use are coming out regularly. Thus, a scientific validation of chest physiotherapy is needed to evaluate its effects on secretions. We setup a quasi-static numerical model of chest physiotherapy based on thorax and lung physiology and on their respective biophysics. We modeled the lung with an idealized deformable symmetric bifurcating tree. Bronchi and their inner fluids mechanics are assumed axisymmetric. Static data from the literature is used to build a model for the lung's mechanics. Secretions motion is the consequence of the shear constraints apply by the air flow. The input of the model is the pressure on the chest wall at each time, and the output is the bronchi geometry and air and secretions properties. In the limit of our model, we mimicked manual and mechanical chest physiotherapy techniques. We show that for secretions to move, air flow has to be high enough to overcome secretion resistance to motion. Moreover, the higher the pressure or the quicker it is applied, the higher is the air flow and thus the mobilization of secretions. However, pressures too high are efficient up to a point where airways compressions prevents air flow to increase any further. Generally, the first effects of manipulations is a decrease of the airway tree hydrodynamic resistance, thus improving ventilation even if secretions do not get out of the lungs. Also, some secretions might be pushed deeper into the lungs; this effect is stronger for high pressures and for mechanical chest physiotherapy. Finally, we propose and tested two a dimensional numbers that depend on lung properties and that allow to measure the efficiency and comfort of a manipulation.

No MeSH data available.