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Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals.

Cetz-Navarro NP, Quan-Young LI, Espinoza-Avalos J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis.The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary.These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] ECOSUR, Avenida Centenario km 5.5, Colonia Pacto Obrero Campesino, Chetumal 77014, Quintana Roo, Mexico [2] Posgrado en Oceanografía Costera, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas-Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Apdo. Postal 453, km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥ 3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

No MeSH data available.


Graphic representation of the six treatments carried out on the coral Orbicella faveolata under the experimental conditions.The experimental design includes healthy (  ) and dead coral colonies ( ), healthy () and dead () transplanted coral cores covered by turf algae (TA), and control cores (). Treatments: T1 = Algae to coral transplant; T2, T3, and T4 = control for T1; T5 = coral to algae transplant; and T6 = control for T5. COCO = cores covered with coral tissue; COTA = coral skeleton cores covered with TA. See text for details.
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f5: Graphic representation of the six treatments carried out on the coral Orbicella faveolata under the experimental conditions.The experimental design includes healthy (  ) and dead coral colonies ( ), healthy () and dead () transplanted coral cores covered by turf algae (TA), and control cores (). Treatments: T1 = Algae to coral transplant; T2, T3, and T4 = control for T1; T5 = coral to algae transplant; and T6 = control for T5. COCO = cores covered with coral tissue; COTA = coral skeleton cores covered with TA. See text for details.

Mentions: In order to evaluate the potential responses i) in morphological plasticity of the most abundant clonal filamentous algae (Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum and Parviphycus trinitatensis) and ii) in the composition of turf algal (TA) communities towards the presence of the coral O. faveolata (e.g., competition for space), two different types of coral cores were reciprocally transplanted: i) cores covered with coral tissue (COCO), and ii) coral skeleton cores covered with TA (COTA). Both were transplanted to hosting coral colonies; controls were COTA left intact during the experiment (Fig. 5). The cores measured 5 cm in diameter (16.8 cm2) and approximately 2 cm in depth and were obtained with a pneumatic drill. The cores were cemented with marine epoxy in a hole previously made with the pneumatic drill in the coral colony hosting the transplants. Each core was identified with a steel rectangle (15 × 55 mm, marked with letters and numbers) nailed to a dead portion of the hosting colony. The top part of the implanted cores and the external surface of the hosting colony were accommodated at a similar level see23.


Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals.

Cetz-Navarro NP, Quan-Young LI, Espinoza-Avalos J - Sci Rep (2015)

Graphic representation of the six treatments carried out on the coral Orbicella faveolata under the experimental conditions.The experimental design includes healthy (  ) and dead coral colonies ( ), healthy () and dead () transplanted coral cores covered by turf algae (TA), and control cores (). Treatments: T1 = Algae to coral transplant; T2, T3, and T4 = control for T1; T5 = coral to algae transplant; and T6 = control for T5. COCO = cores covered with coral tissue; COTA = coral skeleton cores covered with TA. See text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525492&req=5

f5: Graphic representation of the six treatments carried out on the coral Orbicella faveolata under the experimental conditions.The experimental design includes healthy (  ) and dead coral colonies ( ), healthy () and dead () transplanted coral cores covered by turf algae (TA), and control cores (). Treatments: T1 = Algae to coral transplant; T2, T3, and T4 = control for T1; T5 = coral to algae transplant; and T6 = control for T5. COCO = cores covered with coral tissue; COTA = coral skeleton cores covered with TA. See text for details.
Mentions: In order to evaluate the potential responses i) in morphological plasticity of the most abundant clonal filamentous algae (Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum and Parviphycus trinitatensis) and ii) in the composition of turf algal (TA) communities towards the presence of the coral O. faveolata (e.g., competition for space), two different types of coral cores were reciprocally transplanted: i) cores covered with coral tissue (COCO), and ii) coral skeleton cores covered with TA (COTA). Both were transplanted to hosting coral colonies; controls were COTA left intact during the experiment (Fig. 5). The cores measured 5 cm in diameter (16.8 cm2) and approximately 2 cm in depth and were obtained with a pneumatic drill. The cores were cemented with marine epoxy in a hole previously made with the pneumatic drill in the coral colony hosting the transplants. Each core was identified with a steel rectangle (15 × 55 mm, marked with letters and numbers) nailed to a dead portion of the hosting colony. The top part of the implanted cores and the external surface of the hosting colony were accommodated at a similar level see23.

Bottom Line: Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis.The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary.These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] ECOSUR, Avenida Centenario km 5.5, Colonia Pacto Obrero Campesino, Chetumal 77014, Quintana Roo, Mexico [2] Posgrado en Oceanografía Costera, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas-Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Apdo. Postal 453, km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥ 3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

No MeSH data available.