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Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals.

Cetz-Navarro NP, Quan-Young LI, Espinoza-Avalos J - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis.The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary.These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] ECOSUR, Avenida Centenario km 5.5, Colonia Pacto Obrero Campesino, Chetumal 77014, Quintana Roo, Mexico [2] Posgrado en Oceanografía Costera, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas-Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Apdo. Postal 453, km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥ 3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

No MeSH data available.


Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (nMDS) plot of the treatments under experimental conditions.This plot shows the differences in turf algal composition between treatment 5 (T5) and the other treatments (T1–T4, T6). See text for details.
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f1: Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (nMDS) plot of the treatments under experimental conditions.This plot shows the differences in turf algal composition between treatment 5 (T5) and the other treatments (T1–T4, T6). See text for details.

Mentions: The TA composition differed between treatments (pseudo-F5,59 = 1.84, p < 0.05) and dates (pseudo-F1,59 = 5.61, p < 0.05), but no interaction between factors was found (pseudo-F5,59 = 0.85, p < 0.05); particularly, the composition of TA in contact with coral tissue (Treatment (T) 5) was different from all the other treatments (Fig. 1). According to SIMPER, three taxa (2 Rhodophyta and 1 Cyanobacteria) contributed the most to the differences between treatments: Centroceras clavulatum were more frequent, whereas Dichothrix penicillata and Polysiphonia havanensis were less frequent in T5 than in the other treatments.


Morphological and community changes of turf algae in competition with corals.

Cetz-Navarro NP, Quan-Young LI, Espinoza-Avalos J - Sci Rep (2015)

Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (nMDS) plot of the treatments under experimental conditions.This plot shows the differences in turf algal composition between treatment 5 (T5) and the other treatments (T1–T4, T6). See text for details.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525492&req=5

f1: Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling (nMDS) plot of the treatments under experimental conditions.This plot shows the differences in turf algal composition between treatment 5 (T5) and the other treatments (T1–T4, T6). See text for details.
Mentions: The TA composition differed between treatments (pseudo-F5,59 = 1.84, p < 0.05) and dates (pseudo-F1,59 = 5.61, p < 0.05), but no interaction between factors was found (pseudo-F5,59 = 0.85, p < 0.05); particularly, the composition of TA in contact with coral tissue (Treatment (T) 5) was different from all the other treatments (Fig. 1). According to SIMPER, three taxa (2 Rhodophyta and 1 Cyanobacteria) contributed the most to the differences between treatments: Centroceras clavulatum were more frequent, whereas Dichothrix penicillata and Polysiphonia havanensis were less frequent in T5 than in the other treatments.

Bottom Line: Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis.The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary.These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: 1] ECOSUR, Avenida Centenario km 5.5, Colonia Pacto Obrero Campesino, Chetumal 77014, Quintana Roo, Mexico [2] Posgrado en Oceanografía Costera, Instituto de Investigaciones Oceanológicas-Facultad de Ciencias Marinas, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Apdo. Postal 453, km 103 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Ensenada 22860, Baja California, Mexico.

ABSTRACT
The morphological plasticity and community responses of algae competing with corals have not been assessed. We evaluated eight morphological characters of four species of stoloniferous clonal filamentous turf algae (FTA), including Lophosiphonia cristata (Lc) and Polysiphonia scopulorum var. villum (Psv), and the composition and number of turf algae (TA) in competition for space with the coral Orbicella spp. under experimental and non-manipulated conditions. All FTA exhibited morphological responses, such as increasing the formation of new ramets (except for Psv when competing with O. faveolata). Opposite responses in the space between erect axes were found when Psv competed with O. faveolata and when Lc competed with O. annularis. The characters modified by each FTA species, and the number and composition of TA species growing next to coral tissue differed from that of the TA growing at ≥ 3 cm. The specific and community responses indicate that some species of TA can actively colonise coral tissue and that fundamental competitive interactions between the two types of organisms occur within the first millimetres of the coral-algal boundary. These findings suggest that the morphological plasticity, high number, and functional redundancy of stoloniferous TA species favour their colonisation of coral tissue and resistance against coral invasion.

No MeSH data available.