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Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats.

Mossa AT, Ibrahim FM, Mohafrash SM, Abou Baker DH, El Gengaihi S - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Bottom Line: An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration.Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine.The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Toxicology Research Unit (ETRU), Chemical Industries Research Division, Pesticide Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street (Former El Tahrir Street), P.O. Box 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg(-1) body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Photomicrograph of liver sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological changes (×400). Group 1 showing (a) normal histological structure of hepatic lobule from central vein (small arrow) and hepatic cords (large arrow). Groups II and III (grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt.) showing slight swelling of hepatocytes (arrow) (b and c). Group IV (cypermethrin at 25 mg/kg b.wt.) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (c), karyomegaly (arrow) (d), Kupffer cells activation (small arrow) and portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e1), dysplasia of bile duct (arrow) and portal infiltration with inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e2), and hyperplasia and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct (arrow) (e3). Group V (grape pomace extract at 100 mg/kg plus cypermethrin) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (f). Group VI (grape pomace extract at 200 mg/kg b.wt. plus cypermethrin) showing slight activation of Kupffer cells (arrow) (g).
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fig4: Photomicrograph of liver sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological changes (×400). Group 1 showing (a) normal histological structure of hepatic lobule from central vein (small arrow) and hepatic cords (large arrow). Groups II and III (grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt.) showing slight swelling of hepatocytes (arrow) (b and c). Group IV (cypermethrin at 25 mg/kg b.wt.) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (c), karyomegaly (arrow) (d), Kupffer cells activation (small arrow) and portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e1), dysplasia of bile duct (arrow) and portal infiltration with inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e2), and hyperplasia and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct (arrow) (e3). Group V (grape pomace extract at 100 mg/kg plus cypermethrin) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (f). Group VI (grape pomace extract at 200 mg/kg b.wt. plus cypermethrin) showing slight activation of Kupffer cells (arrow) (g).

Mentions: As shown in Figures 4 and 5 and Table 1, histological alteration and score of the liver of untreated female rat show normal histological structure of the hepatic lobule (group I). Liver sections of female rats treated with grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt. showed normal hepatic structure (groups II and III). Cyp treatment (group IV) causes the severe histological changes in the liver, including Kupffer cell, karyomegaly, portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells, and dysplasia of bile duct, portal infiltration, hyperplasia, and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct surrounded by oval cell proliferation. The liver was almost normal in rats given grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt. along with Cyp (groups V and VI) with moderate Kupffer cells in a dose-dependent manner of extract (Figure 4).


Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Grape Pomace against the Adverse Effects of Cypermethrin on Weanling Female Rats.

Mossa AT, Ibrahim FM, Mohafrash SM, Abou Baker DH, El Gengaihi S - Evid Based Complement Alternat Med (2015)

Photomicrograph of liver sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological changes (×400). Group 1 showing (a) normal histological structure of hepatic lobule from central vein (small arrow) and hepatic cords (large arrow). Groups II and III (grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt.) showing slight swelling of hepatocytes (arrow) (b and c). Group IV (cypermethrin at 25 mg/kg b.wt.) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (c), karyomegaly (arrow) (d), Kupffer cells activation (small arrow) and portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e1), dysplasia of bile duct (arrow) and portal infiltration with inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e2), and hyperplasia and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct (arrow) (e3). Group V (grape pomace extract at 100 mg/kg plus cypermethrin) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (f). Group VI (grape pomace extract at 200 mg/kg b.wt. plus cypermethrin) showing slight activation of Kupffer cells (arrow) (g).
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

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fig4: Photomicrograph of liver sections stained by haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) for histological changes (×400). Group 1 showing (a) normal histological structure of hepatic lobule from central vein (small arrow) and hepatic cords (large arrow). Groups II and III (grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt.) showing slight swelling of hepatocytes (arrow) (b and c). Group IV (cypermethrin at 25 mg/kg b.wt.) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (c), karyomegaly (arrow) (d), Kupffer cells activation (small arrow) and portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e1), dysplasia of bile duct (arrow) and portal infiltration with inflammatory cells (large arrow) (e2), and hyperplasia and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct (arrow) (e3). Group V (grape pomace extract at 100 mg/kg plus cypermethrin) showing Kupffer cell activation (arrow) (f). Group VI (grape pomace extract at 200 mg/kg b.wt. plus cypermethrin) showing slight activation of Kupffer cells (arrow) (g).
Mentions: As shown in Figures 4 and 5 and Table 1, histological alteration and score of the liver of untreated female rat show normal histological structure of the hepatic lobule (group I). Liver sections of female rats treated with grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt. showed normal hepatic structure (groups II and III). Cyp treatment (group IV) causes the severe histological changes in the liver, including Kupffer cell, karyomegaly, portal infiltration with mononuclear inflammatory cells, and dysplasia of bile duct, portal infiltration, hyperplasia, and hyperactivation of epithelial lining bile duct surrounded by oval cell proliferation. The liver was almost normal in rats given grape pomace extract at 100 and 200 mg/kg. b.wt. along with Cyp (groups V and VI) with moderate Kupffer cells in a dose-dependent manner of extract (Figure 4).

Bottom Line: An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration.Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine.The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Environmental Toxicology Research Unit (ETRU), Chemical Industries Research Division, Pesticide Chemistry Department, National Research Centre, 33 El Bohouth Street (Former El Tahrir Street), P.O. Box 12622, Dokki, Giza, Egypt.

ABSTRACT
The adverse effect of cypermethrin on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats and the protective effect of ethanolic extract of grape pomace were investigated in the present study. Weanling female rats were given cypermethrin oral at a dose of 25 mg kg(-1) body weight for 28 consecutive days. An additional two Cyp-trated groups received extract at a dose of 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) body weight, respectively, throughout the experimental duration. Three groups more served as extract and control groups. Administration of Cyp resulted in a significant increase in serum marker enzymes, for example, aminotransferases (AST and ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and increases the level of urea nitrogen and creatinine. In contrast, Cyp caused significant decrease in levels of total protein and albumin and caused histopathological alterations in liver and kidneys of female rats. Coadministration of the extract to Cyp-treated female rats restored most of these biochemical parameters to within normal levels especially at high dose of extract. However, extract administration to Cyp-treated rats resulted in overall improvement in liver and kidney damage. This study demonstrated the adverse biohistological effects of Cyp on the liver and kidney of weanling female rats. The grape pomace extract administration prevented the toxic effect of Cyp on the above serum parameters. The present study concludes that grape pomace extract has significant antioxidant and hepatorenal protective activity.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus