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Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy.

Wang J, Lin K, Zheng W, Ho KY, Teh M, Yeoh KG, Huang Z - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination.The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing.Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576.

ABSTRACT
This work aims to evaluate clinical value of a fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) during clinical endoscopy. We have developed a rapid fiber-optic Raman endoscopic system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP)(800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (HW)(2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from esophageal tissue in vivo. A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination. The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification. PLS-DA-LOPCV shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy on training dataset provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 97.4% for ESCC classification. Further, the diagnostic algorithm applied to the independent testing dataset based on simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique gives a predictive diagnostic sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 93.6% for ESCC identification, which is superior to either FP or HW Raman technique alone. This work demonstrates that the simultaneous FP/HW fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique improves real-time in vivo diagnosis of esophageal neoplasia at endoscopy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

(a) The mean in vivo FP/HW Ramanspectra ± 1 standard deviation (SD) ofthe training dataset (80% of the total dataset) (normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202))for diagnostic algorithms development; (b) Difference spectra (ESCC -normal) ± 1 SD resolving the uniquespectral features of ESCC. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HWRaman procedures on normal esophagus and ESCC are also shown.
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f1: (a) The mean in vivo FP/HW Ramanspectra ± 1 standard deviation (SD) ofthe training dataset (80% of the total dataset) (normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202))for diagnostic algorithms development; (b) Difference spectra (ESCC -normal) ± 1 SD resolving the uniquespectral features of ESCC. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HWRaman procedures on normal esophagus and ESCC are also shown.

Mentions: A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra (normal(n = 860); ESCC (n = 312)) wereacquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing routine endoscopic examination (seeSupplementary Fig. S1 online). Thetotal in vivo Raman dataset acquired was split into two parts: i.e., 80% ofthe total dataset for training (938 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra [normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202)] from 34esophageal patients); while the remaining 20% of the total dataset for predictivetesting (234 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra [normal(n = 124); ESCC (n = 110)] from 14esophageal patients). Figure 1(a) shows the mean invivo FP/HW tissue Ramanspectra ± 1standard deviation (SD) (shaded area)of the training dataset (80% of the total dataset) for tissue diagnostic algorithmsdevelopment. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HW Raman procedures arealso shown in Fig. 1. Prominent esophageal tissue Raman peakswith tentative assignments789101112131415161718can be observed in the FP region, i.e., 853 (v(C-C) proteins), 1004(νs(C-C) ring breathing of phenylalanine), 1078(ν(C-C) of lipids), 1265 (amide III v(C-N) andδ(N-H) of proteins), 1302 (CH2 twisting and wagging oflipids), 1335 (CH3CH2 twisting of proteins and nucleic acids),1445 (δ(CH2) deformation of proteins and lipids), 1618(v(C = C) of porphyrins), 1655 (amide Iv(C = O) of proteins) and1745 cm−1(v(C = O) of phospholipids). Intense Raman peaks are alsoobserved in the HW region1819202122232425, i.e., 2850and 2885 cm−1 (symmetric and asymmetricCH2 stretching of lipids),2940 cm−1 (CH3 stretching ofproteins), ~3300 cm−1 (amide A(NH stretching of proteins)) and the broad Raman band of water (OH stretchingvibrations peaking at ~3250 and~3400 cm−1) that are relatedto the local conformation and interactions of OH-bonds in the intracellular andextracellular space of esophageal tissue2728. The intense broadRaman band of water above 3000 cm−1 has alsobeen observed in other soft tissues (e.g., brain, oral tissue)2728.Figure 1(b) shows the difference Raman spectra betweenESCC and normal esophageal tissue ± 1SD (shadedarea), reflecting the Raman-active component changes associated with cancerousprogression in the esophagus. The significant difference(p = 1.3E-8, unpaired two-sided Student’st-test) in Raman spectra of ESCC and normal tissue discerned (Fig.1(b)) demonstrates the potential of simultaneous FP/HW Raman endoscopyfor in vivo diagnosis of esophageal cancer.


Simultaneous fingerprint and high-wavenumber fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy improves in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma at endoscopy.

Wang J, Lin K, Zheng W, Ho KY, Teh M, Yeoh KG, Huang Z - Sci Rep (2015)

(a) The mean in vivo FP/HW Ramanspectra ± 1 standard deviation (SD) ofthe training dataset (80% of the total dataset) (normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202))for diagnostic algorithms development; (b) Difference spectra (ESCC -normal) ± 1 SD resolving the uniquespectral features of ESCC. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HWRaman procedures on normal esophagus and ESCC are also shown.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525386&req=5

f1: (a) The mean in vivo FP/HW Ramanspectra ± 1 standard deviation (SD) ofthe training dataset (80% of the total dataset) (normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202))for diagnostic algorithms development; (b) Difference spectra (ESCC -normal) ± 1 SD resolving the uniquespectral features of ESCC. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HWRaman procedures on normal esophagus and ESCC are also shown.
Mentions: A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW tissue Raman spectra (normal(n = 860); ESCC (n = 312)) wereacquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing routine endoscopic examination (seeSupplementary Fig. S1 online). Thetotal in vivo Raman dataset acquired was split into two parts: i.e., 80% ofthe total dataset for training (938 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra [normal(n = 736); ESCC (n = 202)] from 34esophageal patients); while the remaining 20% of the total dataset for predictivetesting (234 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra [normal(n = 124); ESCC (n = 110)] from 14esophageal patients). Figure 1(a) shows the mean invivo FP/HW tissue Ramanspectra ± 1standard deviation (SD) (shaded area)of the training dataset (80% of the total dataset) for tissue diagnostic algorithmsdevelopment. The corresponding images of the WLR-guided FP/HW Raman procedures arealso shown in Fig. 1. Prominent esophageal tissue Raman peakswith tentative assignments789101112131415161718can be observed in the FP region, i.e., 853 (v(C-C) proteins), 1004(νs(C-C) ring breathing of phenylalanine), 1078(ν(C-C) of lipids), 1265 (amide III v(C-N) andδ(N-H) of proteins), 1302 (CH2 twisting and wagging oflipids), 1335 (CH3CH2 twisting of proteins and nucleic acids),1445 (δ(CH2) deformation of proteins and lipids), 1618(v(C = C) of porphyrins), 1655 (amide Iv(C = O) of proteins) and1745 cm−1(v(C = O) of phospholipids). Intense Raman peaks are alsoobserved in the HW region1819202122232425, i.e., 2850and 2885 cm−1 (symmetric and asymmetricCH2 stretching of lipids),2940 cm−1 (CH3 stretching ofproteins), ~3300 cm−1 (amide A(NH stretching of proteins)) and the broad Raman band of water (OH stretchingvibrations peaking at ~3250 and~3400 cm−1) that are relatedto the local conformation and interactions of OH-bonds in the intracellular andextracellular space of esophageal tissue2728. The intense broadRaman band of water above 3000 cm−1 has alsobeen observed in other soft tissues (e.g., brain, oral tissue)2728.Figure 1(b) shows the difference Raman spectra betweenESCC and normal esophageal tissue ± 1SD (shadedarea), reflecting the Raman-active component changes associated with cancerousprogression in the esophagus. The significant difference(p = 1.3E-8, unpaired two-sided Student’st-test) in Raman spectra of ESCC and normal tissue discerned (Fig.1(b)) demonstrates the potential of simultaneous FP/HW Raman endoscopyfor in vivo diagnosis of esophageal cancer.

Bottom Line: A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination.The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing.Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: Optical Bioimaging Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576.

ABSTRACT
This work aims to evaluate clinical value of a fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique developed for in vivo diagnosis of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) during clinical endoscopy. We have developed a rapid fiber-optic Raman endoscopic system capable of simultaneously acquiring both fingerprint (FP)(800-1800 cm(-1)) and high-wavenumber (HW)(2800-3600 cm(-1)) Raman spectra from esophageal tissue in vivo. A total of 1172 in vivo FP/HW Raman spectra were acquired from 48 esophageal patients undergoing endoscopic examination. The total Raman dataset was split into two parts: 80% for training; while 20% for testing. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and leave-one patient-out, cross validation (LOPCV) were implemented on training dataset to develop diagnostic algorithms for tissue classification. PLS-DA-LOPCV shows that simultaneous FP/HW Raman spectroscopy on training dataset provides a diagnostic sensitivity of 97.0% and specificity of 97.4% for ESCC classification. Further, the diagnostic algorithm applied to the independent testing dataset based on simultaneous FP/HW Raman technique gives a predictive diagnostic sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 93.6% for ESCC identification, which is superior to either FP or HW Raman technique alone. This work demonstrates that the simultaneous FP/HW fiber-optic Raman spectroscopy technique improves real-time in vivo diagnosis of esophageal neoplasia at endoscopy.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus