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Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

Schreiver I, Hutzler C, Laux P, Berlien HP, Luch A - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension.Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue.According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 at UV/VIS light.Wavelengths of ruby laser (694 nm) and the frequency doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) are indicated by red and green lines, respectively.
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f4: Absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 at UV/VIS light.Wavelengths of ruby laser (694 nm) and the frequency doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) are indicated by red and green lines, respectively.

Mentions: By contrast, decomposition of pigment B15:3 was only low under Nd:YAG laser irradiation at both wavelengths applied (Fig. 3a–c). This can be explained in view of the absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 which displays maxima in the visible spectrum at wavelengths between 550–800 nm (orange to red), thus being beyond the zone of coherent green light (532 nm) as emitted by the frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (Fig. 4)1819. With regard to its absorption behavior at 1,064 nm there is repeated proof in the literature that the pigment copper phthalocyanine does not undergo molecular vibrations in the near-infrared and hence is unable to absorb significant amounts of light in this part of the spectrum2021.


Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

Schreiver I, Hutzler C, Laux P, Berlien HP, Luch A - Sci Rep (2015)

Absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 at UV/VIS light.Wavelengths of ruby laser (694 nm) and the frequency doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) are indicated by red and green lines, respectively.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525383&req=5

f4: Absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 at UV/VIS light.Wavelengths of ruby laser (694 nm) and the frequency doubled Nd:YAG (532 nm) are indicated by red and green lines, respectively.
Mentions: By contrast, decomposition of pigment B15:3 was only low under Nd:YAG laser irradiation at both wavelengths applied (Fig. 3a–c). This can be explained in view of the absorption spectrum of pigment B15:3 which displays maxima in the visible spectrum at wavelengths between 550–800 nm (orange to red), thus being beyond the zone of coherent green light (532 nm) as emitted by the frequency doubled Nd:YAG laser (Fig. 4)1819. With regard to its absorption behavior at 1,064 nm there is repeated proof in the literature that the pigment copper phthalocyanine does not undergo molecular vibrations in the near-infrared and hence is unable to absorb significant amounts of light in this part of the spectrum2021.

Bottom Line: Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension.Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue.According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus