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Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

Schreiver I, Hutzler C, Laux P, Berlien HP, Luch A - Sci Rep (2015)

Bottom Line: Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension.Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue.According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Decomposition pattern of phthalocyanine blue (pigment B15:3) based on the pyrolysis and laser irradiation data presented.
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f2: Decomposition pattern of phthalocyanine blue (pigment B15:3) based on the pyrolysis and laser irradiation data presented.

Mentions: Using an online coupling to GC/MS we identified HCN, 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile (BDCN), benzonitrile (BCN), and 2-butanone as the four main cleavage products of pigment B15:3 upon pyrolysis at ≥800 °C (Fig. 1a). Since the latter is often added as solvent its presence is likely a remainder from pigment synthesis. In addition, some traces of benzene also emerged in the pyrograms at temperatures >800 °C. In contrast to 2-butanone, levels of HCN, BDCN, BCN and benzene were increasing with pyrolysis temperature, thus confirming their occurrence as specific degradation products (Fig. 1b–d). Commercially available standards for HCN (including its isotopes) and BDCN were used for the identification of pyrolysis-dependent descendants of the pigment. Further, retention times and mass spectra were identical to those peaks identified as HCN and BDCN by library comparison. Whereas the decomposition of pigment B15:3 into BDCN has been already shown by a previous study17, additional formation of the lower molecular weight compounds BCN and benzene, and the gaseous HCN has remained undiscovered yet (Fig. 2).


Formation of highly toxic hydrogen cyanide upon ruby laser irradiation of the tattoo pigment phthalocyanine blue.

Schreiver I, Hutzler C, Laux P, Berlien HP, Luch A - Sci Rep (2015)

Decomposition pattern of phthalocyanine blue (pigment B15:3) based on the pyrolysis and laser irradiation data presented.
© Copyright Policy - open-access
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525383&req=5

f2: Decomposition pattern of phthalocyanine blue (pigment B15:3) based on the pyrolysis and laser irradiation data presented.
Mentions: Using an online coupling to GC/MS we identified HCN, 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile (BDCN), benzonitrile (BCN), and 2-butanone as the four main cleavage products of pigment B15:3 upon pyrolysis at ≥800 °C (Fig. 1a). Since the latter is often added as solvent its presence is likely a remainder from pigment synthesis. In addition, some traces of benzene also emerged in the pyrograms at temperatures >800 °C. In contrast to 2-butanone, levels of HCN, BDCN, BCN and benzene were increasing with pyrolysis temperature, thus confirming their occurrence as specific degradation products (Fig. 1b–d). Commercially available standards for HCN (including its isotopes) and BDCN were used for the identification of pyrolysis-dependent descendants of the pigment. Further, retention times and mass spectra were identical to those peaks identified as HCN and BDCN by library comparison. Whereas the decomposition of pigment B15:3 into BDCN has been already shown by a previous study17, additional formation of the lower molecular weight compounds BCN and benzene, and the gaseous HCN has remained undiscovered yet (Fig. 2).

Bottom Line: Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension.Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue.According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR), Department of Chemical and Product Safety, Max-Dohrn-Strasse 8-10, 10589 Berlin, Germany.

ABSTRACT
Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension. Skin cell viability was found to be significantly compromised at cyanide levels of ≥1 mM liberated during ruby laser irradiation of >1.5 mg/ml phthalocyanine blue. Further, for the first time we introduce pyrolysis-GC/MS as method suitable to simulate pigment fragmentation that may occur spontaneously or during laser removal of organic pigments in the living skin of tattooed people. According to the literature such regular tattoos hold up to 9 mg pigment/cm(2) skin.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus