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Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation.

Diomandé SE, Nguyen-The C, Guinebretière MH, Broussolle V, Brillard J - Front Microbiol (2015)

Bottom Line: Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species.Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH.Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France ; Université d'Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus

Environmental factors influencing the FA composition of Bacillus genus strains.
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Figure 7: Environmental factors influencing the FA composition of Bacillus genus strains.

Mentions: Depending on the environment, Bacillus species can display different FA patterns, which are mainly related to adaptation and survival (Figure 7). This ability to easily change their FAs profiles may contribute to the ubiquity of these species. Even if the FA composition varies in response to environmental fluctuations, some features of the FA pattern are conserved, which sometimes correlates to the growth ability of the species in a given environmental niche. Therefore, it is important to distinguish the short-term (short-time adaptation) from the long-term (long-term adaptation) change in FA composition during the evolution of a species. The impact of the observed changes in FA composition during the short-term adaptation of a species with different ecological abilities on membranes properties (e.g., fluidity, permeability) has seldom been measured, limiting the interpretation of their importance. There are some common features between the short-term and long-term adaptation of a species to temperature. In species grown at their lowest growth temperature domain versus their optimal temperature, and also in cold-adapted species grown at an optimal temperature versus mesophilic or thermotolerant species, a higher proportion of some UFAs and/or a higher ratio of anteiso/iso branched-chain FAs has been observed; both changes increase the membrane fluidity. These two main mechanisms do not seem to occur in B. cereus species, which display no clear changes in the anteiso/iso ratio, either during short-term adaptation to changes in temperature or long-term evolution of the phylogenetic groups within B. cereus. The impact of other changes on the membrane properties in relation to long-term and short-term adaptation to temperature, such as the i13/i15 ratio in B. cereus, remains unknown. It is possible that this change in the chain length of major FAs modifies the membrane fluidity. In contrast to temperature, there is no clear understanding of the role of FAs in the short-term and long-term adaptation to other environmental conditions (e.g., water activity, pH).


Role of fatty acids in Bacillus environmental adaptation.

Diomandé SE, Nguyen-The C, Guinebretière MH, Broussolle V, Brillard J - Front Microbiol (2015)

Environmental factors influencing the FA composition of Bacillus genus strains.
© Copyright Policy
Related In: Results  -  Collection

License
Show All Figures
getmorefigures.php?uid=PMC4525379&req=5

Figure 7: Environmental factors influencing the FA composition of Bacillus genus strains.
Mentions: Depending on the environment, Bacillus species can display different FA patterns, which are mainly related to adaptation and survival (Figure 7). This ability to easily change their FAs profiles may contribute to the ubiquity of these species. Even if the FA composition varies in response to environmental fluctuations, some features of the FA pattern are conserved, which sometimes correlates to the growth ability of the species in a given environmental niche. Therefore, it is important to distinguish the short-term (short-time adaptation) from the long-term (long-term adaptation) change in FA composition during the evolution of a species. The impact of the observed changes in FA composition during the short-term adaptation of a species with different ecological abilities on membranes properties (e.g., fluidity, permeability) has seldom been measured, limiting the interpretation of their importance. There are some common features between the short-term and long-term adaptation of a species to temperature. In species grown at their lowest growth temperature domain versus their optimal temperature, and also in cold-adapted species grown at an optimal temperature versus mesophilic or thermotolerant species, a higher proportion of some UFAs and/or a higher ratio of anteiso/iso branched-chain FAs has been observed; both changes increase the membrane fluidity. These two main mechanisms do not seem to occur in B. cereus species, which display no clear changes in the anteiso/iso ratio, either during short-term adaptation to changes in temperature or long-term evolution of the phylogenetic groups within B. cereus. The impact of other changes on the membrane properties in relation to long-term and short-term adaptation to temperature, such as the i13/i15 ratio in B. cereus, remains unknown. It is possible that this change in the chain length of major FAs modifies the membrane fluidity. In contrast to temperature, there is no clear understanding of the role of FAs in the short-term and long-term adaptation to other environmental conditions (e.g., water activity, pH).

Bottom Line: Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species.Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH.Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment.

View Article: PubMed Central - PubMed

Affiliation: INRA, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France ; Université d'Avignon, UMR408 Sécurité et Qualité des Produits d'Origine Végétale Avignon, France.

ABSTRACT
The large bacterial genus Bacillus is widely distributed in the environment and is able to colonize highly diverse niches. Some Bacillus species harbor pathogenic characteristics. The fatty acid (FA) composition is among the essential criteria used to define Bacillus species. Some elements of the FA pattern composition are common to Bacillus species, whereas others are specific and can be categorized in relation to the ecological niches of the species. Bacillus species are able to modify their FA patterns to adapt to a wide range of environmental changes, including changes in the growth medium, temperature, food processing conditions, and pH. Like many other Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus strains display a well-defined FA synthesis II system that is equilibrated with a FA degradation pathway and regulated to efficiently respond to the needs of the cell. Like endogenous FAs, exogenous FAs may positively or negatively affect the survival of Bacillus vegetative cells and the spore germination ability in a given environment. Some of these exogenous FAs may provide a powerful strategy for preserving food against contamination by the Bacillus pathogenic strains responsible for foodborne illness.

No MeSH data available.


Related in: MedlinePlus